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1976 Summer Olympics

From Academic Kids

Games of the XXI Olympiad
1976 Summer Olympics
Nations participating 92
Athletes participating 6,028 (4,781 men, 1,247 women)
Events 198 in 21 sports
Opening ceremony July 17, 1976
Closing ceremony August 1, 1976
Officially opened by Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada
Athlete's Oath Pierre St.-Jean
Judge's Oath Maurice Fauget
Olympic Torch Stphane Prfontaine and
Sandra Henderson
Stadium Stade Olympique

The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Other candidates in the bid to organise the Olympics were Moscow and Los Angeles. The final choice was made on May 12 1970 on the 69th IOC session. Los Angeles was eliminated in the first round of voting. In the last round, Montreal defeated Moscow, 41 votes to 28 (with one blank vote).

Contents

Highlights

  • Canada, the host country, unfortunately left with only 5 silver medals and 6 bronze medals. It was the first time in Olympic history that the host country of the Summer Games won no gold medals. This feat had occurred previously only in the Winter Games - 1924 in Chamonix, France, 1928 in St. Moritz, Switzerland and again at the 1984 Winter Games in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and once more for Canada at the 1988 Calgary Games.
  • In a protest to a tour of South Africa by the New Zealand rugby team, Tanzania led a boycott of 22 African nations as the IOC refused to bar the New Zealand team. Some of the nations had already participated however, as the teams only withdrew after the first day.
  • Following the Munich massacre, high security was part of the scene for these games.
  • The organisation of the Olympics turned out bad financially for Montreal, as the city remained faced with debts well after the Games had finished. The Olympic Stadium, a daring design of French architect Roger Taillibert, remains a lasting monument to the huge deficit, as it never had an effective retractable roof, and the tower was only completed after the Olympics.
  • The Olympic Flame was "electronically" transmitted from Athens to Ottawa, by means of an electronic pulse derived from the actual burning flame. From Ottawa, it was carried by hand to Montreal. Following a rainstorm that doused the Olympic flame a few days after the opening of the games, an official relit the flame using his cigarette lighter. Organizers quickly doused it again and relit it using a backup of the original flame.
  • 14-year-old Nadia Comaneci of Romania scored seven perfect 10s and won 3 gold medals, including the prestigious All Around, in women's gymnastics, 3 gold medals there had also been won by Nelli Kim of USSR. Nikolai Andrianov of USSR won 4 gold medals, including All Around, in men's gymnastics.
  • Viktor Saneyev (Soviet Union) won his third consecutive triple jump gold medal, while Klaus Dibiasi of Italy did the same in the platform diving event.
  • Alberto Juantorena of Cuba became the first man to win both the 400 m and 800 m at the same Olympics. Finland's Lasse Virn also achieved a double in the 5000 and 10000 m and finished 5th in the marathon, thereby failing to equal Emil Ztopek 1952 achievements.
  • Boris Onischenko, a member of the Soviet Union's modern pentathlon team, was disqualified after he had rigged his pe to register a hit when there wasn't one. Due to this all USSR modern pentathlon team, which was a leader at the moment, was disqualified too. Onischenko earned enmity of other Soviet Olympic team members (e.g., USSR volleyball team members threatened to throw him out of hotel's window if they would meet him).
  • Women's events were introduced in basketball, handball and rowing.
  • Five American boxers, including Sugar Ray Leonard, Leon Spinks, Michael Spinks, Leo Randolph and Howard Davis Jr. won gold medals in boxing. This has been often called the greatest Olympic boxing team the United States ever had, and, out of the five American gold medalists in boxing, all but Davis went on to become professional world champions.
  • Princess Anne of the United Kingdom was the only female competitor not to have to submit to a sex test. She was a member of her country's equestrian team.


Velodrome (foreground) and Olympic Stadium, Montreal
Velodrome (foreground) and Olympic Stadium, Montreal

Medals awarded

See the medal winners, ordered by sport:

Medal count

Top medal-collecting nations:
(for the full table, see 1976 Summer Olympics medal count)

1976 Summer Olympics medal count
Pos Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Missing image
Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.png


USSR
49 41 35 125
2 East Germany (GDR) 40 25 25 90
3 United States 34 35 25 94
4 West Germany (FRG) 10 12 17 39
5 Missing image
Japan_flag_large.png


Japan
9 6 10 25
6 Poland 7 6 13 26
7 Bulgaria 6 9 7 22
8 Cuba 6 4 3 13
9 Romania 4 9 14 27
10 Hungary 4 5 13 22

Nations

Articles about Montreal Summer Olympics by nation:

Montreal

The Olympics in Canada

1976 was the first time Canada hosted the Olympics; it has subsequently hosted the Olympics once more, at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, and will host the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Coincidentally, Toronto hosted the 1976 Summer Paralympics.

The Olympics in Montreal

Montreal saw the 1976 games as a chance to build on its world prestige that was first rewarded with a World's Fair on Canada's centennial. It used the opportunity to expand its rapid mass transit system (subway) first built for Expo '67, the Metro.

With the Munich Massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics on everyone's minds, security was topflight for the 1976 games. Montreal 1976 pointed the way to the future in Olympic security, which was further increased for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Montreal massively overspent on the Olympics, following Mayor Jean Drapeau's adage, The Olympics can no more lose money than a man can have a baby. However, with rampant corruption, and lack of financial controls, Montreal did indeed lose money, over $2 billion dollars (US), when it was all said and done. This is known colloquially as the Big Owe. As of 2004, Montreal is still paying off the debt, and the Montreal Olympic Stadium (formerly the home of Major League Baseball's Montreal Expos) is still not complete, and still under construction, needing a new roof, as previous designs have proved inadequate for the climate.

The Olympics after Montreal

Following the news of the massive financial losses of the Montreal Games, few cities wished to host the Olympics. This was seen as a major threat to the future of the Olympic Games, and was not until the financially successful 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles that cities began to line up to be hosts again. The Los Angeles and Montreal Games are seen as examples of what to do and not to do when organizing the Olympics, and serve as object lessons to prospectant host cities. Since then, additional object lessons have been drawn from Atlanta in 1996 (the need to avoid commercialization) and Athens in 2004 (the need to organize and build to schedule).

See also

External links


Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
1896 | 1900 | 1904 | 1906¹ | 1908 | 1912 | (1916)² | 1920 | 1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | (1940)² | (1944)² | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996 | 2000 | 2004 | 2008 | 2012 | 2016 | 2020
Winter Olympic Games
1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | (1940)² | (1944)² | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1994 | 1998 | 2002 | 2006 | 2010 | 2014 | 2018
¹Not currently recognised as official by the IOC.     ²Cancelled due to war.
de:Olympische Sommerspiele 1976

et:1976. aasta suveolmpiamngud es:Juegos Olmpicos de Montreal 1976 fr:Jeux Olympiques d't de 1976 it:XXI Olimpiade nl:Olympische Zomerspelen 1976 ja:モントリオールオリンピック no:Sommer-OL 1976 pl:Letnie Igrzyska Olimpijskie 1976 pt:Jogos Olmpicos de Vero de 1976 fi:1976 kesolympialaiset sv:Olympiska sommarspelen 1976 zh-cn:1976年夏季奥林匹克运动会

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