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1936 Summer Olympics

From Academic Kids

The Games of the XI Olympiad were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin's bid was preferred over Barcelona. Although awarded before the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, the government saw the Olympics as a golden opportunity to promote their fascist ideology. Film-maker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned to film the Games. The film, titled Olympia, was arguably a piece of propaganda, but originated many of the techniques now commonplace to the filming of sports. She was also the first to introduce the Olympic torch. To ensure victories, the German government provided anabolic steroids and testosterone supplements to its atheletes. While Germany dominated the games, the many triumphs by citizens of other nations was seen as a rebuke to racist Nazi philosophies. In particular, the black sprinter and long jumper Jesse Owens won 4 gold medals. The tale of Hitler snubbing Owens at the ensuing medal ceremony is, however, untrue.

Anti-fascists planned to host a People's Olympiad in Barcelona as an alternative games to protest the Berlin Olympics but this was cancelled due to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

Games of the XI Olympiad
Nations participating50
Athletes participating4,066 (3,738 men, 328 women)
Events129 in 19 sports
Opening ceremoniesAugust 1, 1936
Closing ceremoniesAugust 16, 1936
Officially opened byAdolf Hitler
Athlete's OathRudolph Ismayr
Judge's Oath:not applicable
Olympic TorchFritz Schilgen
StadiumOlympiastadion
Contents

Highlights

  • Before the Games, the IOC expelled American Ernest Lee Jahnke, the son of a German immigrant, for encouraging athletes to boycott. He was replaced by United States Olympic Committee president Avery Brundage, who supported the Games.
  • In the cycling match sprint finals, the German Toni Merkens fouled Arie van Vliet of the Netherlands. Instead of disqualification he was fined 100 marks and kept his gold.
  • Black American Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events. His blond German competitor Lutz Long offered Owens advice after he almost failed qualifying in the long jump and was posthumously awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship.
  • Rie Mastenbroek of the Netherlands won three gold medals and a silver in swimming.
  • Rower Jack Beresford won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal.
  • The US eight-man rowing team from the University of Washington won the gold medal by coming from behind to defeat the Germans and Italians with Adolf Hitler in attendance.
  • For the first time the Olympic Flame was brought to the Olympic Town by a torch relay, with the starting point in Olympia, Greece.
  • The games were the first to have live television coverage, Telefunken and Fernseh broadcast over seventy hours of coverage to specially erected booths throughout the city.
  • Basketball and handball made their debut at the Olympics, both as outdoor sports. Handball would not appear again on the program until 1972.
  • German gymnasts Konrad Frey and Alfred Schwarzmann both won three gold medals.
  • In the marathon two Korean athletes -- Sohn Kee-chung and Nam Sung-yong -- won gold and bronze medals respectively, forced to run for Japan and under Japanese names. Japan had invaded Korea in 1910.
  • In the quarter-finals of the football tournament, Peru beat Austria by 4 to 2 in over-time, but a replay was ordered as Peruvian fans stormed the pitch during the match. The Peruvian team left for home in disagreement, while Austria went on to lose the final and receive a silver medal.
  • Three Principles of the People was chosen the best national anthem of the games.
  • Basketball : This was the year that basketball became a recognized Olympic sport. In the finals, the United States' undefeated team beat Canada 19-8 under abysmal conditions. The contest was played outdoors, on a dirt court in a driving rain. Due to the quagmire the teams could not dribble and the score was held to a minimum. High scorer in the game was Joe Fortenbury for the U.S. with 7 points. Also, there were no seats for spectators and the nearly 1,000 in attendance had to stand in the rain through the entire game.
  • German communist Werner Seelenbinder had planned to win the wrestling event and make a vulgar gesture at Hitler; but instead came fourth.
  • The Canadian Olympic Team was the only olympic team from a non-fascist country to salute Hitler (in a gesture of friendship) while marching by during opening ceremonies.

Events

Medal count

Top medal-collecting nations:
(for the full table, see 1936 Summer Olympics medal count)

(Host nation in bold.)

1936 Summer Olympics medal count
Pos Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Germany 33 26 30 89
2 United States 24 20 12 56
3 Hungary 10 1 5 16
4 Missing image
Italy_flag_1861.png


Italy
8 9 5 22
5 Missing image
Finland_flag_large.png


Finland
7 6 6 19
6 France 7 6 6 19
7 Sweden 6 5 9 20
8 Netherlands 6 4 7 17

See also

External links

Bibliography


Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
1896 | 1900 | 1904 | 1906¹ | 1908 | 1912 | (1916)² | 1920 | 1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | (1940)² | (1944)² | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996 | 2000 | 2004 | 2008 | 2012 | 2016 | 2020
Winter Olympic Games
1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | (1940)² | (1944)² | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1994 | 1998 | 2002 | 2006 | 2010 | 2014 | 2018
¹Not currently recognised as official by the IOC.     ²Cancelled due to war.
de:Olympische Sommerspiele 1936

et:1936. aasta suveolmpiamngud fr:Jeux Olympiques d't de 1936 it:XI Olimpiade ja:ベルリンオリンピック (1936年) ko:1936 하계 올림픽 nl:Olympische Zomerspelen 1936 nb:Sommer-OL 1936 nn:Sommar-OL 1936 pl:Letnie Igrzyska Olimpijskie 1936 pt:Jogos Olmpicos de Vero de 1936 fi:1936 kesolympialaiset sv:Olympiska sommarspelen 1936 zh-cn:1936年夏季奥林匹克运动会

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