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Cuba

From Academic Kids

The Republic of Cuba is an Island in the eastern Caribbean that lies at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. To the north are found the United States and the Bahamas, to the west Mexico, to the southwest the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, and to the southeast Haiti. Template:Cuba infobox

Contents

History

Main article: History of Cuba

Cuba and its originally Amerindian population (Taino, Siboney and Guanajatabey) came under Spanish control in the 15th century and who were wiped out shortly afterwards. The colony's struggle for independence started in 1868 and continued during the 19th century until the Spanish-American War of 1898. The United States occupied the island until its independence was granted in 1902, though limited by the Platt Amendment (revoked in 1934), after which the US continued to have a major influence in Cuban affairs.

Cuba's economy prospered for the next fifty years. To the point that by the late fifties the cuban peso was valued very close to the us dollar. Illiteracy ran about 12%, one of the lowest in the latin american countries.

[Fidel Castro|Fidel Castro Ruz]], [Che Guevara]Camilo Cienfuegos, Ra?stro Ruz [and their rebel army were one of many guerilla groups that opposed the dictator Fulgencio Batista. Castro's 'July 26 Movement' subsumed these other groups quickly and took over Cuba's government in 1959, following its victory against Batista's military forces. At the time when Batista was deposed, 75% of Cuba's farmable land was owned by foreign individuals or foreign companies (mostly US companies). The new revolutionary government adopted land reforms and confiscated all the private property owned by cubans and of those foreign companies. As a result, relations with the USA rapidly deteriorated. At first, Castro was reluctant to discuss his plans for the future, but eventually he declared himself a communist, explained that he was trying to build socialism in Cuba, and opened diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. A new government, led by the reborn Communist Party of Cuba, began carrying out the economic reforms that Castro had promised. Among other things, healthcare and education freely available were expanded to cover all Cubans.After some delay, a Constitution of Soviet inspiration was adopted in 1976.

On April 15 (1961) the Bay of Pigs, CIA led invasion of Cuba began with the bombing of castro's air fields, using Douglas A-26 invaders, supplied by the USA and flown by Cuban patriots. The bombing raids over Havana destroyed the majority of the communist dictators planes and runways, clearing the way for more than fifteen-hundred Cuban patriots, and U.S. Special Forces landing at Playa Giron (Bay of Pigs)on April 17,1961 where they were met by castro's army, and fought valiantly for more than three days & nights, until they were forced to surrender, due to president Kennedy's orders to call off the invasion. The failed attempt to liberate Cuba was an international embarrasment to the newly elected Kennedy administration, and subsequently led to the Cuban Missile crissis in October (1962), when Medium Range Nuclear Missiles were installed in Cuba by the Soviet Union and aimed at the USA. This led to an Internatiional Nuclear Stand-off, between the United States of America and Russia.

In April 1980, over 10,000 Cubans stormed the Peruvian embassy in Havana seeking political asylum. In response to this and international pressure, Castro allowed anyone who desired to leave the country to depart through the port of Mariel. Known as the Mariel Boatlift, over 125,000 Cubans migrated to the U.S., mostly aboard vessels that departed from the U.S. Eventually the U.S. stopped the flow of vessels heading south and Cuba ended the exodus.

For several decades, Cuba received a large Soviet subsidy, whereby Cuba provided the Soviet Union with sugar and the Soviets provided Cuba with petroleum. Part of this oil was consumed by Cuba, while the remainder was sold on the world market. Cuba supported communist movements throughout Latin America (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Colombia and Chile, among others) and Africa (Angola, Mozambique and Ethiopia). In Angola alone, Cuba had over 50,000 troops. Castro stated at the first Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba in December of 1975 that "Without the decisive, steady, and generous aid of the Soviet people, our country could not have survived the confrontation with imperialism".

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 dealt Cuba a giant economic blow and when the Soviets stopped their 6 billion dollars-per-year subsidy, the Cuban government called for "a special period" of recovery. Despite being denied access to development aid from the IMF and World Bank because Cuba is in arrears to its Paris Club debtors to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars, Cuba's economy has not collapsed, although its per-capita income is still lower than it was in 1989, but has been rising steadily. Cuba's economy today is roughly split into three parts: agriculture (tobacco, sugar, citrus), mining (nickel), and tourism.

In 1994, Castro declared an open immigration policy and did not stop any individual that desired to leave the country. Departing on small rafts and homemade boats, over 30,000 Cubans took to the sea. In contrast to the Mariel Boatlift, the migrants were interdicted at sea and taken to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Eventually, Castro restricted migration following talks with the U.S. In 1995, an agreement was reached between the U.S. and Cuba. The U.S. would allow 20,000 Cubans per year (chosen by lottery) to immigrate to the U.S. and Cuba would allow the return of migrants interdicted at sea. All Cuban migrants interdicted at sea from this point on were interviewed by INS officials at sea. If there was a possibility they were or would be persecuted upon return, they would be taken to Guantanamo Bay for further interviews.

In 1996, the Clinton Administration enacted the Helms-Burton law. This law states, among other things, that any foreign company that "knowingly traffics in property in Cuba confiscated without compensation from a U.S. person" can be subjected to litigation and that company's leadership can be barred from entry into the United States. Sanctions may be applied to non-U.S. companies trading with Cuba. Although the immigrant capitalist Cuban population in the U.S. keeps constant pressure on the American government to restore them to power in Cuba, this legislation was enacted after the shootdown of what the US claims were two civilian planes by the Cuban Air Force. [1] (http://www.cnn.com/US/9602/cuba_shootdown/26/3pm/)[2] (http://www.cnn.com/US/9602/cuba_shootdown/27/). This extraterritorial U.S. legislation is considered highly controversial, and the US embargo was condemned for the 13th time in 2004 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, by 179 countries. Additionally, US Congress members from both parties have openly criticized the ongoing balance of resources which have been committed to enforcing this embargo. [3] (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi%3Ff=/news/archive/2004/04/29/national1842EDT0787.DTL)

Cuba's major trading partners include Spain, Canada, France, Italy, United Kingdom and Japan. The U.S. embargo against Cuba applies to all goods, except the export of medicine and medical products and agricultural commodities to Cuba, which are authorized by law. U.S. agriculture companies are free to trade with Cuba, provided that Cuba pays in cash prior to delivery. The U.S. bans U.S. citizens from travelling to Cuba. Nevertheless, because of their understandable historical or political interests in the Caribbean island , some U.S. citizens visit Cuba by traveling through Mexico, Canada or the Bahamas. American citizens can be liable to fines if discovered and prosecuted by the U.S. government, although it has been reported that the US authorities are not overly strict with ordinary travellers not involved in any criminal activity. Millions of citizens of countries other than the U.S. engage not only in business with Cuba but in tourism with Cuba as well.

The Revolutionary Government of Cuba

Main article: The Revolutionary Government of Cuba

Politics

Main article: Politics of Cuba

Cuba is a Socialist state, or a parliamentary republic led by a Communist Party with a monopoly of political power (as all opposition parties are considered illegal under the Cuban constitution, which states that "The Communist Party of Cuba (...) is the superior guiding force of society and the state"). Fidel Castro has been the head of state and head of government since 1959, first as prime minister and after the abolition of that office in 1976 as president of the Councils of State and Ministers. He is also the member of the National Assembly of People's Power from the municipality of Santiago de Cuba since 1976, First Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party, and commander in chief of the armed forces.

The Cuban parliament is the National Assembly of People's Power or Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular. Its 609 members are elected to serve five-year terms, without opposition. The candidates, who may or may not be members of the Cuban Communist Party, are nominated by pro-government social and political organizations. The Communist Party is constitutionally recognised as Cuba's only legal political party, but is forbidden by law to nominate candidates. However this is largely a moot point since no known opponents of the government have been elected since the revolution.

In 2001 an attempt was made by [[Oswaldo Pay᠓ardi񡳝] and others, operating as the Varela Project, to have a national plebiscite using provisions in the Constitution of Cuba which provided for citizen initiative. If accepted by the government and approved by public vote, the amendments would have established such things as freedom of association, freedom of speech, freedom of press, as well as the freedom to start private businesses. The Petition was however refused by the National Assembly, and a subsequent crackdown resulted in the imprisonment of 75 dissidents for terms of up to 28 years on charges of collaborating with and receiving money from the US government. See Human rights in Cuba

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Cuba

Cuba is divided into 14 provinces, and one special municipality (the Isla de la Juventud).

Image:CubaSubdivisions.png
  1. Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth)
  2. [[Pinar del R�Province|Pinar del R�]
  3. La Habana (Havana)
  4. Ciudad de la Habana (Havana City)
  5. Matanzas
  6. Cienfuegos
  7. Villa Clara
  8. [[Sancti Sp�tus Province|Sancti Sp�tus]]

  1. Ciego de ?ila
  2. [[Camag?ovince|Camag?
  3. Las Tunas
  4. Granma
  5. [[Holgu�Province|Holgu�]
  6. Santiago de Cuba
  7. Guantᮡmo

Geography

Missing image
Cu-map.png
Map of Cuba

Main article: Geography of Cuba


The elongated island of Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean and is bounded to the north by the Straits of Florida and the greater North Atlantic Ocean, to the northwest by the Gulf of Mexico, to the west by the Yucatan Channel, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Windward Passage. The Republic comprises the entire island, including many outlying islands such as the Isle of Youth, previously known as the Isle of Pine, with the exception of Guantanamo Bay, a naval base that has been leased by the United States since 1903. The mainland is the world's 16th largest island.

The island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains, with more rugged hills and mountains primarily in the southeast and the highest point is the Pico Real del Turquino at 2,005 m. The local climate is tropical, though moderated by trade winds. There is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October.

Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and [[Camag? Some of the well-known smaller towns are Baracoa which was the first Spanish settlement on Cuba, as well as Trinidad and Bayamo.

Demographics

According to the CIA's World Factbook, Cuba is 51% mulatto (mixed white and black), 37% white, 11% black, and 1% Chinese. Cuba has historically been more heavily European than other Caribbean islands, and in 1950 was said to have a 75% white majority. It should be mentioned that between 1900 and 1930 close to a million white spaniards arrived in the Island from Spain. Some people believe that a good portion of cuban whites were actually mulatto. It highlights the shock that Castro's rise to power had on the white upper class, a large portion of whom moved to Florida in the 1960s and 1970s. Also, economic shock caused their birthrate to fall precipitously, even as the poorer black and mulatto populations soared. This is not hard to understand when one considers that the white population was 4 million during the second half of the twentieth century (with low birthrates and heavy emigration), while blacks and mulattos increased from 1.5 million to over 6 million, very similar to the growth in the predominately black and mulatto Dominican Republic.

The Chinese population in Cuba derives mostly from Chinese sent to Cuba during the 19th century to build railroads and work in the mines, as was also occuring in the US at this time. Once the work was completed, however, most of them could not afford the passage back to China and remained in the Island. Historical papers show that, while considered inferior to Cubans of European descent, they were considered to be superior to blacks because they had lighter skin.

Cuba has the lowest birthrate of any Latin American or Caribbean country, perhaps influenced by its socialist government's policy of free health care and abortion, which was similar to the situation in Eastern Europe. The current fertility rate of about 1.6 children per woman is the lowest of any country in the western hemisphere save Canada.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Cuba

The economy of Cuba is based on state ownership with some small scale private enterprise existing at the fringes. Tourism has become one of the largest sources of income for Cuba, and in 1993 the U.S. dollar was made legal tender (the country operated under a dual-currency system); this arrangement was, however, revoked on 25 October 2004. At that time, use of the dollar in business was officially banned, and a 10% surcharge was introduced for the conversion of dollars to convertible pesos, the island's new official currency. Other currencies, including the Euro, were not affected. See details at Ludwig Van Mises Institute (http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations/sovereign/dollar/2004/1026cubadollar.htm|the).

The Cuban economy was hit hard in the early 1990s following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Comecon economic bloc, with which it had traded predominantly. More recent problems include high oil prices, recessions in key export markets such as sugar and nickel, damage from hurricanes (most recently an estimated 1 billion dollars economic damage from hurricane Charley), depressed tourism, and faltering world economic conditions. In late 2003, and early 2004, both tourism levels and nickel prices increased. One other factor in the recovery of the Cuban economy is the remittances of Cuban-Americans (which constitute almost 3% of the Cuban Economy, by some estimates). Cuba currently trades with almost every nation in the world (including the U.S.). However, Cuba owes billions in Paris Club debt to nations such as France, Japan and Germany.

Cuba is notable for its national organic agriculture initiative, undertaken in order to feed a population faced with starvation. In the early 1990s, post-Soviet Union, Cuba lost over 70% of agricultural chemical imports, over 50% of food imports, and an equally significant amount of oil. Its agricultural sector, built on a large-scale, mechanized, chemical-based model, was instantly crippled. By restructuring its agricultural industry, and focusing scientific efforts on organic solutions, Cuba managed to rapidly and successfully convert the country to entirely organic production. Currently, only organic agriculture is permitted by law.

The main current trading partners of Cuba are: Spain, Venezeula and Canada. In time as China normalises relations with the Caribbean, China may also become a more importaint Cuban trading partner.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Cuba

Holidays
DateEnglish NameLocal NameRemarks
January 1Revolution Victory DayTriunfo de la Revoluci󮦬t;TD>The former dictator Fulgencio Batista fled in the night from December 31, 1958 to January 1, 1959, marking the victory of the Revolution led by Fidel Castro, who has been President since then
May 1 Labour DayD�de los trabajadoresInternational Labour Day
July 26Commemoration of the Assault of the Moncada garrisonAsalto al cuartel MoncadaIn the morning of July 26, 1953, some 160 men under the command of Fidel Castro attacked the Moncada army garrison in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba's second-largest city. Although this action crushingly failed, it is seen as the beginning of the Castro-led insurrection that expelled dictator Fulgencio Batista on January 1, 1959 and established a communist government in Havana thereafter
October 10Independence DayD�de la IndependenciaThis day in 1868, Carlos Manuel de C鳰edes, "Father of the Homeland", gave freedom to his slaves and started the independence war against the Spanish colonial power
December 25Christmas DayNavidadProhibited for decades in revolutionary Cuba, the Christmas celebration (and the corresponding holiday) was reinstalled in 1998 after Pope John Paul II visited Cuba

Religion

Main articles: [[Santer�], Palo Monte, Catholicism

The religious landscape of Cuba is strongly marked by syncretisms of various kinds. In the post-revolutionary era religious practice was discouraged, and Cuba, from 1962, was officially an atheist state until 1992 which it amended its constitution to become formally a secular state. While the papal visit to Cuba has strengthened official Catholicism, most Cubans share a motley of faiths that include popular Catholicism, over 50 versions of Protestantism, spiritism, African-derived beliefs. The most important currents of these are [[Lucum�egla de Ocha]] (known as Santer�, which derives from Yoruban religion, Regla de Palo Monte, which derives from Congo-based religions, and the [[Sociedad Secreta Abaku᝝, which derives from the secret men's societies in the region of Calabar, in south-eastern Nigeria. Other religious manifestations include Freemasonry and Pentecostal churches.

It is assumed that Santer�and popular Catholicism are the most widely followed religious beliefs in Cuba, though these are by no means exclusive, and one can easily be a follower of several religious currents at the same time, as well as being a member of the communist party. Pentacostalism is also growing rapidly, and the Assemblies of God alone claims a membership of over 100,000 people.

Cuba once had a small but vibrant Jewish population, and Havana still has one or two active synagogues.

In Cuba the 6th of January is the "Dia de los Reyes Magos" which in English means "Day of Kings" is celebrated to commemorate the day that the Three Wise Men came to visit Jesus according to the Gospels. As in most Latin American countries as well as Spain, this day is celebrated in conjunction with, or sometimes instead of Christmas Day.

Important religious festivals include various days dedicated to the saints such as the "Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre" (the Virgin of Cobre, Cuba's patron saint, syncretised with Santer�s [[Och? on September 8, and san Lạro (Lazarus) (syncretised with [[Babalu Ay靝), on December 17.

See also

External links

Official

  • Site of the Cuban government (http://www.cubagob.cu/)
  • Cubaweb (http://www.cubaweb.cu) — Official Cuban Government online directory
  • Granma (http://www.granma.cu) — Communist Cuban Party Newspaper
  • State Department (http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rt/cuba/commission/2004/c12237.htm)— US State Department views on Cuba

Opposition

General

  • Cuba Maps (http://www.webhavana.com/CubaMaps/index.php) — Maps of all the provinces of Cuba, and maps of the major cities.
  • Information about Cuba (http://cuba.alivepages.com) Culture, history, demography, geography, religion, etc.
  • CUBANET (http://www.cubanet.org/cubanews.html) — News articles from Cuba's independent journalists and a digest of Cuban news by international newspapers
  • Encuentro en la Red (http://www.cubaencuentro.com) — Independent news and cultural site on Cuban matters
  • AfroCubaWeb (http://www.afrocubaweb.com)
  • Cuba AIDS Project (http://www.cubaaidsproject.com) HIV and AIDS in Cuba
  • UN HDI (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_CUB.html) — Human Development Index for Cuba from UN
  • Cubamusic (http://www.cubamusic.biz) — All about cuban music
  • Spain and the Spaniard (http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/robert_ingersoll/spain_and_spaniard.html) A contemporary opinion of the Cuban uprising

Travel information

  • Wikitravel Guide (http://wikitravel.org/en/article/Cuba) — Wikitravel visiting guide
  • Cuba eXPlorer (http://www.cubaxp.com/) — Information about Cuba (mostly related to travel), picture galleries, daily news, forums, a directory of Cuban sites and more.
  • Cuba Travel (http://www.connect2cuba.com/) — Pictures of Cuba, Travel Directory, private houses to rent or "casas particulares", forums and cuban links.
  • Cuba Photos (http://www.travel-impressions.de/cuba/cuba_mix/waves.htm) Sights, Daily Life, Santeria, Havana, Malecon, CDR (Comite de Defensa de la Revolucion), Old American Cars
  • Life in Havana (http://www.cabophoto.com/cub.htm) Pictures of the daily life in Havana
  • Cuba-Pictures.com (http://www.cuba-pictures.com) — a Lonely Planet author's travel photos from all across Cuba
  • LaHabana.com (http://www.lahabana.com) — City guide to Havana.
  • Kuba-Cuba.com (http://www.kuba-cuba.com) — a Link Guide to Cuba.
  • Cuba Study Tour (http://webhost.bridgew.edu/jhayesboh/cuba/cubamaps.html) — A geography professor shares his experience and impressions
  • CUBA NUESTRA - Sweden (http://www.cubanuestra.nu/web/folder.asp?folderID=72)
  • Google maps (http://www.google.com/maps?ll=21.730957,-79.409180&spn=10.437012,16.215820&t=k&hl=en)


Countries in West Indies

Antigua and Barbuda | Bahamas | Barbados | Cuba | Dominica | Dominican Republic | Grenada | Haiti | Jamaica | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia | Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Trinidad and Tobago

Dependencies: Anguilla | Aruba | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Guadeloupe | Martinique | Montserrat | Navassa Island | Netherlands Antilles | Puerto Rico | Turks and Caicos Islands | U.S. Virgin Islands

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