Juneau City and Borough, Alaska

Map of Alaska highlighting Juneau, provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip Art

Juneau City and Borough is a borough located on the Gastineau Channel in the Alexander Archipelago in the State of Alaska. The City, Alaska's second-largest (in terms of population) is nestled at the base of Mount Juneau, and across the channel from Douglas Island. The borough seat is the City of Juneau, which is the only incorporated place as the City and Borough boundaries coincide.

Juneau was named after gold prospector Joe Juneau. The Tlingit name of the town is Dzántik'i Héeni "flounder creek", and Auke Bay just north of Juneau proper is called Aak'w "little lake" in Tlingit. The Taku River just south of Juneau was named after the cold t'aak wind that blows down from the mountains and is the source of some of Juneau's more unpleasant weather.

Juneau is the capital city of Alaska and is located in the Alaskan Panhandle. The State Legislature meets in the Territorial Building. Juneau is the only mainland state capital in the U.S. which cannot be accessed by road. The only way to reach the Juneau is via sea or air.

There are several glaciers near hiking trails (including the Mendenhall Glacier), one bridge to Douglas Island, an airport, and dead-end roads. A car brought to Juneau must be put on a barge or ferry first.



From before the time of European settlement in the Americas, the Gastineau Channel was a favorite fishing ground for local Tlingit Indians, known then as the Auke and Taku tribes, who had inhabited the area for thousands of years. The native cultures are rich with artistic traditions including carving, weaving, orating, singing and dancing.

In 1880, Sitka mining engineer George Pilz offered a reward to any local chief who could lead him to gold-bearing ore. Chief Kowee arrived with some ore and prospectors were sent to investigate. On their first trip, to Gold Creek, they found little of interest. However, at Chief Kowee's urging, Pilz sent Joe Juneau and Richard Harris back to the Gastineau Channel, directing them to Snow Slide Gulch, the head of Gold Creek, where they found nuggets "as large as peas and beans," in Harris' words.

Missing image
Alaska's towering Mount Juneau.

On October 18, 1880, the two men marked a 160 acre (0.6 km²) town site where soon a mining camp appeared. Within a year the camp became a small town, the first to be founded after Alaska's purchase by the United States.

In the beginning, the town was called Harrisburg after Richard Harris; some time later its name was changed to Rockwell. In 1881 the miners met and renamed the town Juneau, after Joe Juneau. In 1906, after the diminution of the whaling and fur trade, Sitka, the original capital of Alaska, declined in importance and the seat of government was moved to Juneau.

After gold was found, a mining camp sprung up, and the town was organized in 1881. By the turn of the century, the placer miners had wandered on, but large underground mines were being developed. Juneau was a gritty mining town up through the 1940s. The mines shut down during World War II under wartime orders, as they were not considered essential to the war effort.

Once granted statehood in 1959, and aided by the completion of the Alaska Pipeline in 1977, Juneau grew with the growth of state government. That growth slowed considerably in the 1990s [1] (http://www.censusscope.org/us/s2/c110/chart_popl.html) and the state demographer expects the borough to grow very slowly [2] (http://juneaualaska.com/history/history_demograph.shtml) over the next twenty years.

A consolidation of the City of Douglas, the City of Juneau, and the Greater Juneau Borough Juneau in 1970 made present-day Juneau the country's largest city (in terms of land area), larger than the State of Delaware.


Juneau is located at 58°21'5" North, 134°30'42" West (58.351422, -134.511579)Template:GR.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 8,430.4 km² (3,255.0 mi²). 7,036.1 km² (2,716.7 mi²) of it is land and 1,394.3 km² (538.3 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 16.54% water.

  • Average annual rainfall is 54 inches; annual average snowfall is 101 inches.
  • The average high temperature in July is 65 degrees Fahrenheit, and the average low temperature in January is 25 degrees Fahrenheit.

Adjacent boroughs and census areas

Also shares eastern border with British Columbia, Canada.


Missing image
Juneau is a popular cruise ship destination. In the foreground is the ms Amsterdam, and behind it the ms Zaandam, both ships of the Holland America Line.

As of the censusTemplate:GR of 2000, there are 30,711 people, 11,543 households, and 7,641 families residing in the borough. The population density is 4.4/km² (11.3/mi²). There are 12,282 housing units at an average density of 1.7/km² (4.5/mi²). The racial makeup of the borough is 74.79% White, 0.81% Black or African American, 11.38% Native American, 4.68% Asian, 0.38% Pacific Islander, 1.05% from other races, and 6.91% from two or more races. 3.39% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 11,543 households out of which 36.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% are married couples living together, 10.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 33.8% are non-families. 24.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 4.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.60 and the average family size is 3.10.

In the borough the population is spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.2 males.

The median income for a household in the borough is $62,034, and the median income for a family is $70,284. Males have a median income of $46,744 versus $33,168 for females. The per capita income for the borough is $26,719. 6.0% of the population and 3.7% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 6.7% of those under the age of 18 and 3.9% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Colleges and universities

Missing image
A memorial to all those who toiled in Juneau's mines.


  • A large bronze statue featuring pelicans, intended for delivery to the State of Florida, stands in front of the Federal Building in Juneau. Pelicans are not indigenous to the State of Alaska. The proper artwork (an eagle) was delivered to Florida by mistake.

See also

External links

  • Juneau (http://www.juneau.corg) official website
  • Picture of Juneau and Douglas Island, 1914 (http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/I?pan:10:./temp/~ammem_gmtR::displayType=1:m856sd=pan:m856sf=6a16919:@@@mdb=manz,eaa,aaeo,aaodyssey,hh,gottscho,bbpix,bbcards,magbell,berl,lbcoll,cdn,cic,cwnyhs,cwar,consrvbib,coolbib,coplandbib,curt,dag,fsaall,aep,fine,fmuever,dcm,cmns,cowellbib,toddbib,lomaxbib,ngp,gottlieb,alad,mcc,mymhiwebib,aipn,afcwip,fawbib,omhbib,pan,vv,wpapos,psbib,pin,presp,qlt,ncr,mesnbib,denn,runyon,wtc,detr,upboverbib,varstg,horyd,hawp,suffrg,awh,awhbib,wright)


Regions of Alaska Missing image
Flag of Alaska

Alaskan Bush | Interior | North Slope | Panhandle | South Central | Tanana Valley
Largest cities
Anchorage | Barrow | Bethel | Fairbanks | Homer | Juneau | Kenai | Ketchikan | Kodiak | Kotzebue | Nome | Palmer | Petersburg | Seward | Sitka | Unalaska | Valdez | Wasilla
Boroughs and census areas
Aleutians East | Aleutians West | Anchorage | Bethel | Bristol Bay | Denali | Dillingham | Fairbanks North Star | Haines | Juneau | Kenai Peninsula | Ketchikan Gateway | Kodiak Island | Lake and Peninsula | Matanuska-Susitna | Nome | North Slope | Northwest Arctic | Prince of Wales - Outer Ketchikan | Sitka | Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon | Southeast Fairbanks | Valdez-Cordova | Wade Hampton | Wrangell-Petersburg | Yakutat | Yukon-Koyukuk

Template:United States state capitals


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