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Jersey

From Academic Kids

Template:Otheruses3 The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. As well as the island of Jersey itself, it also includes the uninhabited islands of Minquiers and Ecréhous. Along with the Bailiwick of Guernsey it forms the grouping known as the Channel Islands. The defence of all these islands is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. However, Jersey is not part of the UK, but is rather a separate possession of the Crown, comparable to the Isle of Man. It is not a part of the European Union either.

Bailiwick of Jersey
Flag of Jersey
(In Detail)
Coat of Arms of Jersey
(Full Size)
Missing image
LocationJersey.png
Location of Jersey

Official languages English, French (Jèrriais recognised as regional language)
Capital Saint Helier
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Sir John Cheshire
Bailiff Sir Philip Bailhache
Currency Jersey pound (on par with Pound Sterling)
Time zone UTC (DST)
National anthems Ma Normandie
God Save the Queen
National holiday May 9: Liberation Day
Internet TLD .je
Calling Code +44-1534
Contents

History

Main article: History of Jersey

Jersey was annexed to the Duchy of Normandy by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy in 933. His descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, which led to the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England being governed under one monarch. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to the King of France, but retained possession of Jersey, along with Guernsey and the other Channel Islands which have been internally self-governing since.

Trade, aided by neutrality between England and France, laid the foundations of prosperity. The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, fishing, shipbuilding, and production of woollen goods until 19th century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the Island.

Jersey was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 May, 1940, and was held until 9 May, 1945, the end of World War II.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Jersey

Jersey's legislature is the States of Jersey. It includes 53 elected members - 12 senators (elected for 6-year terms), 12 constables (heads of parishes elected for 3-year terms), 29 deputies (elected for 3-year terms); the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff (appointed to preside over the assembly and having a casting vote in favour of the status quo when presiding); and 3 non-voting members - the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General all appointed by the Crown. Government departments are run by committees of the States. The civil head of the Island is the Bailiff. No political parties currently have representation in the States.

The legal system is based on Norman customary law (including the Clameur de Haro), statute and English law; justice is administered by the Royal Court.

Elizabeth II's traditional title as head of state is that of Duke of Normandy, but she does not hold that title formally. She reigns by her position as Queen over a crown dependency.

Geography

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Jersey.arp.750pix.jpg
Satellite view of Jersey

Main article: Geography of Jersey

Jersey is a 45 sq. mi. (116 km²) island in the English Channel, approximately 12 mi. from the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy, France. It is the largest and southernmost of Channel Islands.

The climate is temperate with mild winters and cool summers, it also has the most sunshine per year in the British Isles. The terrain consists of gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast.

Politically, Jersey is divided into 12 parishes, all having access to the sea and mostly named after saints:

The parishes are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes), divisions which are historic and nowadays mostly used for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Jersey

Jersey's economy is based on financial services, tourism, internet trade and agriculture. VAT has not been present in the island, and luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK. This lack of VAT has led to the growth of the 'fulfillment' industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported to the UK, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting UK prices on the same products. Duty free goods are still available for purchase on travel to and from the island. On 13 May 2005 the States of Jersey approved the introduction of a goods and services tax, scheduled for 2008.

Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce. The source of milk is Jersey cattle, a small breed of cow that has also been acknowledged (though not widely so) for the quality of its meat. Small-scale organic beef production has been reintroduced in an effort to diversify the industry.

Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of those who pass to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want.

On February 18, 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status.

Currency

Jersey issues its own Jersey banknotes and coins which circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey currency within the island.

Coinage

Designs on the reverse of Jersey coins:

  • 1p Le Hocq Tower (coastal defence)
  • 2p L'Hermitage, site where Saint Helier lived
  • 5p Seymour Tower (offshore defence)
  • 10p La Pouquelaye de Faldouet (dolmen)
  • 20p La Corbière lighthouse
  • 50p Grosnez Castle (ruins)

Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. Designs on the reverse of Jersey pound coins include series of crests of the 12 parishes, and historic Jersey-built ships. The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is: Insula Caesarea ("island of Jersey" in Latin). Two pound coins are issued also, but in very small quantities.

Demographics

Mont Orgueil was built in the 13th century to protect Jersey from French invasion
Enlarge
Mont Orgueil was built in the 13th century to protect Jersey from French invasion

Main article: Demographics of Jersey

The Island plays host to large amount of non-Jersey born people; roughly 50% of the population are not originally from Jersey.

30% of the population is concentrated in Saint Helier, site of the only town. Of the roughly 89,000 people in Jersey, around two fifths are of Jersey/Norman descent and two fifths of British descent. The largest minority groups in the island are UK (N. Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales), Portuguese (especially Madeiran), Irish and Polish. The French community is also always present. The people of Jersey are often called Islanders, or in individual terms Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Most Jersey-born people consider themselves British and value the special relationship between the British Crown and the Island.

The Church of England is the established church, but Methodism is traditionally strong in the countryside and there is a large Roman Catholic minority.

Jersey, like most places in the western world, has an ageing population. Reasons for this change particular to Jersey are the emigration of young people seeking opportunities the island cannot provide.

There is no free movement of people between the United Kingdom or other countries of the European Union and Jersey.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Jersey

Jèrriais, the island's Norman language, is spoken by a minority of the population, although it was the majority language in the 19th century. Though there are efforts to revive the language in schools, it is still spoken mostly by older people (most commonly in the country parishes, although the capital has the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers). The dialect of Jèrriais spoken in St. Ouen is often considered somewhat different to that of the rest of the island. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the toponymy increased apace with the migration of English people into the island.

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist reformation of the 16th century.

Printing only arrived in Jersey in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished. See Jèrriais literature.

John Everett Millais, Elinor Glyn and Wace are among Jersey's artistic figures. Lillie Langtry, the Jersey Lily, is the island's most widely recognised cultural icon. The famous French writer, Victor Hugo, lived in exile in Jersey 1852-1855.

The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902.

The island's patron saint is Saint Helier.

Food and drink

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Jersey_wonders.jpg
Jersey wonders, or mèrvelles, are a favourite snack, especially at country fêtes. According to tradition, the success of cooking depends on the state of the tide.

Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: mussels (called moules locally), oysters, lobster and crabs - especially spider crabs - ormers, and conger.

Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. However there is no indigenous tradition of cheesemaking, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.

Jersey Royal potatoes are the local variety of new potato, and the island is famous for its early crop of small, tasty potatoes from the south-facing côtils (steeply-sloping fields). They are eaten in any variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter.

Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdélots are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter (lé nièr beurre), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices.

Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders (les mèrvelles), fliottes, bean crock (les pais au fou), nettle (ortchie) soup, vraic buns.

Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Apple brandy is also produced. Some wine is produced.

See also

External links

Template:Commonscat

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Dependencies: Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 | Faroe Islands | Gibraltar | Guernsey | Jan Mayen | Jersey | Isle of Man | Svalbard
1. Country partly in Asia. 2. Usually assigned to Asia geographically, but often considered European for cultural and historical reasons.
cs:Jersey

de:Jersey (Insel) es:Isla de Jersey eo:Jersey fr:Jersey he:ג'רזי id:Jersey io:Jersey it:Jersey nl:Jersey ja:ジャージー島 no:Jersey pl:Jersey pt:Jersey ro:Insula Jersey ru:Джерси sk:Jersey sl:Jersey fi:Jersey sv:Jersey zh:澤西島

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