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San Marino

From Academic Kids

For other uses, see San Marino (disambiguation).

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino or San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino or San Marino) is one of the smallest nations in the world. Located in southern Europe, it is landlocked by Italy, and is one of the European microstates.

Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino
Flag of San Marino San Marino: Coat of Arms
(In Detail)
National motto: Libertas
(Latin: Liberty)
Location of San Marino
Official language Italian
Capital San Marino
Largest City Serravalle
Captains Regent: Fausta Morganti and Cesare Gasperoni
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 190th
61 km²
Negligible
Population
 - Total (2000)
 - Density
Ranked 189th
27,336
448/km²
Independence 3 September 301
Currency Euro (€)
Time zone
 - in summer
CET (UTC+1)
CEST (UTC+2)
National anthem Inno Nazionale (no words) Music (http://home.planet.nl/~jschoone/sm.html)
Internet TLD .sm
Calling Code +378 (+0549 from Italy)
Contents

History

Main article: History of San Marino

San Marino claims to be the world's oldest republic still in existence, being founded in A.D. 301 by a skilled builder referred to as St. Marinus. Its written constitution was adopted on October 8, 1600. The tiny nation was recognised by Napoleon's France in 1797, and by the other European nations at the 1815 Congress of Vienna.

Although a sovereign nation, it is strongly dependent on Italy, by which it has been completely surrounded since that country's unification in the 19th century.

Giuseppe Garibaldi was unifying Italy in the 1860's and took refuge from his enemies in San Marino. There he got aid and money and supplies to continue his campaign for unification from San Marino citizens and leaders. In return, Garibaldi guaranteed that San Marino would always be an independent sovereign state.

Politics

Main article: Politics of San Marino

The Consiglio Grande e Generale, or Grand and General Council, is elected by popular vote every five years. This parliament selects two of its members to serve as Regents for periods of six months. These regents are known as the Capitani Reggenti, or Ruling Captains. The Capitani Reggenti and the cabinet form the executive branch of the government.

The Council also elects the Consiglio dei XII (Council of Twelve), which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council.

Municipalities

San Marino is divided into nine municipalities, known locally as castelli, that are also towns. See list of cities in San Marino.

Geography

Map of San Marino
Map of San Marino

Main article: Geography of San Marino

San Marino is an enclave in Italy, on the border between the regioni of Emilia-Romagna and Marche. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines mountain range, and it has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, Monte Titano, is situated at 749 m above sea level. There are no bodies of water of any significant size.

The climate is Mediterranean, with warm summers and mild winters.

San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller.

Economy

Main article: Economy of San Marino

Although San Marino is not an official European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by virtue of arrangements with the council of the European Union; it is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the Euro, the Sammarinese lira was coupled to and exchangeable with the Italian lira. The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the lire before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.

The tourist sector contributes over 50% of San Marino's GDP, with more than 3.3 million tourists visiting in 1997. The key industries are banking, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.

San Marino's postage stamps, which are only valid within the country, are mostly sold to philatelists and also form a source of income.

The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

Sport

Formula One

One of the Formula One races, the San Marino Grand Prix, is named after the state, although it does not actually take place there. San Marino itself is considered too small to hold its own grand prix .It takes place at the Enzo e Dino Ferrari racetrack in the Italian town of Imola, about 100 km northwest of San Marino, along the Via Emilia.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of San Marino; see also Demographics of Italy.

Being completely surrounded by Italy, there is no significant difference between the population of San Marino and Italy and many Italians live in San Marino.

The state has a population of less than 29,000 including 5,000 Sammarineses living in foreign countries and 1,000 foreigners living in San Marino.

The language spoken is Italian, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.

Culture

Main article: Culture of San Marino

Miscellaneous topics

External links

References

  • Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005 (2005). San Marino (country) (http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761565721_2/San_Marino_(country).html). Retrieved January 31, 2005.



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