History of Bratislava

From Academic Kids

This is a tabular history of Bratislava, capital of Slovakia.

For an overview of Bratislava's history see Bratislava.



  • 25–15 million years ago: 3 skeletons of the (Epi)Pliopithecus Vindobonensis found in the city part Devínska Nová Ves in 1957
  • 14–10 million years ago: teeth of the Griphopithecus suessi (formerly known as Sivapithecus darwiny or Dryopithecus darwiny) found in the city part Devínska Nová Ves in 1902
  • Paleolithic: hand-axes and other stone tools of Homo heidelbergensis (from the periods about 0.45 million years and about 0.3 million years ago) and of Neanderthal man
  • Neolithic: first known permanent settlements on the towns territory (Linear Ceramics Culture)
  • 400-50 BC: Celts (more exactly the Boi); from 125 BC on an important Celtic oppidum (fortified town) with a mint; there is an acropolis on the castle hill and some settlements below it ; Bratislava is a genuine town for the first time in history (it will become a de-facto town again in the 9th century AD and then again in the 11th century)

1st century10th century

  • 1st century5th century: the border of the Roman Empire (Limes Romanus) runs right through the middle of today's town; many Roman (e.g., "Gerulata") and Germanic settlements
  • around 500: arrival of the Slavs
  • 560s: arrival of the Avarians
  • 623 (620?): Samo is made king of the Slavs after a successful insurrection of the Slavs (probably at Bratislava-Devín) against Avarian rule in this region
  • 623658/?659: part of Samo's Empire
  • late 8th century907: the Bratislava castle as well as the Devín castle are important centers of the Nitrian Principality and (since 833) of Great Moravia
  • 805: the Bavarian historian Johannes Aventinus will write in the 16th century that in 805 the Bratislava Castle was repaired during the reign of its lord, prince Vratislav, on the place of the ruins of an old Roman settlement allegedly called Pisonium, and was named Wratisslaburgium; if this is true, prince Vratislav is, after Samo (see 658), only the second Slavic historical figure known from the Middle Danube region
  • 864: first written reference to the Devín castle (Dowina) (in the Fuldish Annals)
  • around 900: maybe owned by the (originally) Lower Pannonian prince Braslav (Bräslav, Brazlaw) - or by a magnate of the same name - who was a vassal of Bavaria (Germany); earlier, it was thought that Bräslav was the person who gave the town Bratislava its German name Brezalauspurc (see 907), later Pressburg, and maybe also its new Slovak name Bratislava - see under Bratislava - Names; nowadays, it is assumed that Pressburg/Brezalauspurc is a distortion of Predeslausburg, a name derived from Predslav, who was (according to some historians) the ruler of Bratislava around 900 and the 3rd son of the Great Moravian king Svätopluk; the modern Slovak name Bratislava, however, is assumed to be derived (by mistake) from the name of the Czech ruler Bretislav I
  • 907 part of Hungary and first written reference to Bratislava (Brezalauspurc) in connection with the battle of Bratislava (in the Salzburg Annals): the Bavarians are totally defeated by the Magyars; as a result, the Frankish East March ceases and is occupied by the Magyars (907–955); traditionally, this is considered the end of the state Great Moravia
  • 992(?)–1002(?): Bratislava and surroundings are probably part of Bavaria (Holy Roman Empire); in 1002(?) it is given by Gisela, the daughter of Henry II the Quarrelsome of Bavaria, as a dowry to Stephen I of Hungary, her new husband


  • 1000–early 13th century: a market settlement (the future town center) grows (again) below the Bratislava Castle (first written reference in 1151) and becomes an important center in early 13th century; further settlements in the surroundings follow soon in the 12th century; at the same time, the Bratislava castle is a castle with the best fortification in Hungary, because it often has to face hostile troops at that time, and a place of frequent stay of Hungarian kings (who mainly hold tournaments and parties), so that it receives a more luxurious equipment
  • around 1000: the Bratislava county (comitatus), one of the first counties in Hungary, is founded probably by Grand Prince Stephen I
  • after 1001 (until about 1038): coins with the inscription "Preslav(v)a Civ(itas)" (Town of Bratislava) are minted by king Stephen I
  • 1030: the Czech duke Břetislav I, participating in a campaign of the German emperor Konrad II against Hungary, devastates Western Slovakia and undertakes an attack against the Bratislava castle; he is defeated by the Hungarian king
  • 1042: Břetislav I and the troops of the German king Henry III temporarily conquer Bratislava; Henry undertakes a new invasion in 1043
  • 1052: the German king Henry III besieges Bratislava for 2 months without success, but causes considerable damage to the castle; pope Leo IX has to come personally to the town to achieve a peace (in 1053) between Henry and the Hungarian king
  • 10731074: the Hungarian king Solomon – who was based at Bratislava castle during his fightings against Géza and duke Ladislaus - and has the castle (damaged in (see) 1052) reconstructed
  • 12th century (and 13th century): Hungarians settle in the market settlement below the Castle in several waves, thus joining the previously predominantly Slovak inhabitants there
  • 1108: the German king Henry V along with the Czech duke Svatopluk fail to conquer Bratislava castle; in 1109, a new attack of the Czechs (undertaken as a revenge for a Hungarian attack of Moravia) fails
  • 1146: the Austrian duke Boris, wanting to become Hungarian king, besieges and conquers the Bratislava castle; the Hungarian king has to buy it back
  • 1160s: the Hungarian king Stephen III is living in Bratislava castle and has its fortification improved
  • 1189: participants of the Third Crusade to the Holy Land, led by the German king Frederick I Barbarossa, gather at Bratislava castle


  • 12411242: the Mongols fail to conquer the fortified castle and the town below it, but temporarily devastate the surrounding settlements; after 1242, German colonists come to the town and gradually their number will increase, so that till the late 19th century they will represent by far the largest ethnic group in the town; the castle is adapted after these attacks
  • 1271 and 12731276: captured by the king of Bohemia, Ottakar II in connection with fightings between Hungary and Bohemia because of Styria; in this connection, the (1st) Peace of Pressburg is signed in 1271
  • 12851286: captured by the Hungarian noble and palatine Nicolaus von Güssing, who (temporarily) burns down the castle in 1286, but his revolt against the king is defeated
  • 12871291: captured by the Austrian duke Albert of Habsburg; Albert is defeated by the Hungarian noble Matthew Csák of Trenčín, who was the leader of Bratislava and Trenčín counties at that time and Bratislava belongs to Hungary again
  • 1291: Bratislava (i.e. the town below the castle) is conferred its (first known) town privileges by the Hungarian king Andrew III; earlier town privileges are not known, but probable, because Bratislava has been called a "town" as early as around 1250; after 1291, the town received many privileges from Hungarian kings, especially from the emperor Sigismund in the 15th century (see e.g.1405)
  • 13011322: after the death of the Hungarian king Andrew III, Bratislava is annexed by Austria, because Andrew's widow gave the town to the Habsburgs; the Habsburgs return it to Hungary in 1322, but occupy it soon again; it is only in 1338 that the town finally becomes part of Hungary again
  • 1405: declared a "free royal town" by king Sigismund of Luxemburg; not only Bratislava but all towns in Hungary got this status (meaning that they received “collective nobility”, i.e. the status of a feudal lord with all its privileges) because Sigismund wanted to restrain the increasing power of (true) feudal lords in Hungary
  • 1428: the Hussites burn down the suburbs of Bratislava
  • 1429: negotiations held in Bratislava between Sigismund of Luxemburg and the Hussites (in April and in June) fail
  • 14321434: Hussite attacks to the town fail
  • 14341435: the amount of payments by Hungary, against which the Hussites will leave Slovakia, is being officially negotiated here
  • 1435: Sigismund of Luxemburg orders to improve the fortification of the castle (due to a last Hussite invasion to Slovakia in that year)
  • 14391445: the first permanent bridge over the Danube in Bratislava (it does not exist anymore since 1445)
  • 14401443: fightings between the castle of Bratislava, supporting king Ladislaus of Jagiellon, and the actual town of Bratislava below the castle hill, supporting (and owned by) queen Elisabeth: in 1442, Ladislaus settles at the castle and temporarily conquers the town, but is defeated by the Austrian emperor Frederick III of Habsburg supporting Elisabeth; finally, in 1443, Elisabeth gets the town back, but the castle remains in Ladislaus' hands till his death in 1444
  • 14671490: seat of the 1st university in Slovakia, the Universitas Istropolitana (often wrongly called Academia Istropolitana)
  • 14901526: under the Jagiellonian kings, Bratislava is a place of diplomatic negotiations
  • 14901491: Maximilian drives the Hungarians from Austria (summer 1490) and even occupies Hungarian frontier territories, but he is compelled by want of money to retreat and signs the Treaty of Pressburg, also called the (2nd) Peace of Pressburg, with the Hungarian king Ladislaus II on November 7 1491: under this treaty it is agreed that Hungary renounces to Lower Austria and Maximilian should succeed to the crown in case Ladislaus left no legitimate male issue
  • 1529: the Turks besiege Bratislava, but fail to conquer it
  • 1531 (January): churches and hospitals outside the town wall are deliberately destroyed so that the Turks are not able to see from there to the town behind the town wall
  • 1532 (beginning of): thousands of soldiers are sent to Bratislava as a protection against the Turks planning to attack Vienna; Bratislava is temporarily turned to a military camp; the Turks, seeing the military force in Bratislava, decide to attack Vienna from the south


  • 15361784 capital of the Kingdom of Hungary (whose territory only consisted of today's Slovakia and parts of today's Western Hungary, because the Turks ruled Buda at that time); the Kingdom of Hungary was part of the Habsburg (i. e. Austrian) Monarchy from 1526 to 1918
  • 15421848 meeting place of the Hungarian Diet (with interruptions)
  • 15631830 coronation town for Hungarian kings and queens (in the St. Martin's Cathedral); the first coronation is that of king Maximilian of Habsburg, the last one the coronation of Ferdinand V; 11 kings and 8 queens were crowned altogether in the town
  • 17th century (see also 1704): the town is touched by anti-Habsburg uprisings in Slovakia; in addition, there are fightings with the Turks, floods, plagues and other disasters:
1606 (within the Stephen Bocskay Uprising): Bockay troops occupy the surroundings of Bratislava
16191621/1622 (within the Gabriel Bethlen Uprising): Bethlen conquers Bratislava in 1619; he is defeated by imperial troops in 1621 and then besieges the town from 1621 to 1622; see 1626
16711677: Bratislava is seat of extraordinary courts against the Protestants and participants of anti-Habsburg uprisings; e.g. a trial against the participants of the Wesselenyi Conspiracy takes place in 1671
16821683 : (within the Imre Thököly Uprising) Bratislava is the only town in Slovakia that refuses to capitulate to Thököly’s troops; finally, the town, but not the castle capitulates in July 1683, and is only reconquered by imperial troops after the Turks have been defeated near Vienna (which happened in September 1683)
  • 1607: the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (Evanjelické lýceum), a kind of protestant grammar school and in the 19th century also a kind of university, is founded (see 1803)
  • 1626: the (3rd) Peace of Pressburg between Gabriel Bethlen and the emperor Ferdinand II, which puts an end to the Bethlen anti-Habsburg uprising
  • since the 18th century: important center of the Slovak national and cultural movement (Slovak National Revival)
  • 1704: (within the Rakoczi Uprising) prince Eugene of Savoy manages to protect Bratislava from Rákoczi's troops, but the surroundings of the town are totally destroyed
  • 17101711: the Great Plague Epidemic kills 3800 people
  • 17111780: the best years of the town: many new baroque buildings are erected, the economy flourishes (1st manufacture in 1728), first parks arise (today's Hviezdoslavovo námestie), the town wall is demolished in 1775 to enable further expansion, the first city theatre was opened in 1776
  • 1705: the first journal in Hungary, "Mercurius Veridicus ex Hungaria", is published here
  • 17211722: the first regular newspaper in Hungary (written in Latin), "Nova Posoniensia", is published here
  • 1762: the 6-years old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart gives a concert in the Palffy palace.
  • 1764: the first German newspaper in Hungary, the "Pressburger Zeitung", is published here (till 1929)
  • 1780: the first newspaper in Hungarian,"Magyar hírmondó", is published here
  • 1782: the number of inhabitants reaches 33,000 (out of which 29,223 are in the part of the town below the castle that has the free royal town status (see 1405)), thus making Bratislava the biggest town in Hungary; the number of inhabitants has increased by 200% between 1720 and 1780
  • 1783: the first newspaper in Slovak, "Presspurske Nowiny", is published here
  • 1783: the first novel in Slovak, the "Rene mladenca prihody a skusenosti" (The adventures and experiences of the youth Rene) by J.I. Bajza, is published here
  • 1784 (see 1536): central Hungarian authorities are moved to present-day Budapest, the number of inhabitants decreases and the economic situation of the town deteriorates (till 1811); from now on Bratislava is only the coronation town (till 1830) and the seat of the Hungarian diet (till 1848)


  • 17841800: the General Seminary (a school for Catholic clergy) works in the Bratislava castle, one of the students is Anton Bernolák (see 1787)
  • 1784: the Royal Academy (founded in the town of Trnava in 1777 basically as a law school) is moved from Trnava to Bratislava
  • 1787: Anton Bernolák publishes here his "Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum", establishing the first Slovak language standard (based on western Slovak dialects, see 1843)
  • 1803 : a separate "Department of Czechoslovak Speech and Literature" is created (from the Institute of Czechoslovak Speech and Literature founded in 1801) at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (see 1607)
  • 1805: (4th and best known) Peace of Pressburg (between Austria and France after Napoleon's victory in the Battle of Austerlitz)
  • 1809: Napoleon's army besieges and bombards the city; Napoleon visits the city; the Devín castle is turned into a ruin by Napoleon's troops
  • 1811: the Bratislava castle is inadvertently destroyed by fire by the soldiers of the barracks inside the castle when protecting Bratislava against Napoleon's troops and will be in ruins till the 1950s (see 1953)
  • 1820: the 9-years old Franz Liszt plays in De Pauli's Palace
  • 1829: Ľudovít Štúr (see 1843), the leader of the Slovak national movement, has started to study at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (see 1607); he will later become a professor of the lyceum,so that -in sum- he will spend some 20 years at the school
  • 1829: the "Czech-Slav Society" (also called: Society for the Czechoslovak language and literature) is created by the students of the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum within the Department of Czechoslovak Speech and Literature (see 1803); it will become an important entity in the Slovak national movement
  • 1830: regular (steam)ship transport of people and cargo on the Danube begins and with it the industrialisation of the town
  • 1840: the first railway line in whole Hungary and Slovakia is that from Bratislava to Svätý Jur (north of Bratislava), till 1846 extended to the Slovak town of Trnava
  • 1843 (February 2): Ľudovít Štúr and his friends decide here to codify the present-day Slovak language standard based on central Slovak dialects (see 1787)
  • 1848: during the 1848 Revolution, the Hungarian diet adopts and Ferdinand V. signs (in the Primate's palace) the so-called March Laws, by which bondage is partly abolished in Hungary
  • 18481849: during the 1848 Revolution, the town is occupied by various armies
  • 1848: railway connection to Vienna
  • 1850 : railway connection to Budapest
  • late 19th century: strong modernisation (sewerage and gas-works 1856, telephone and electrical lighting system 1884, water supply system and City Theatre (today Slovak National Theatre) 1886, 1st permanent bridge over the Danube 1891 (see also 1439), trams 1895, public electricity 1902) and industrialisation (chemical factory (today Istrochem) 1873, oil refinery (today Slovnaft a.s.) 1895 etc.); as a result, during the last decades of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Bratislava is the 2nd most industrialized town of Hungary
  • 1866: the last fightings of the War between Austria and Prussia take place in the town

20th century

  • 19141919: the (Hungarian) Elisabeth University works here; it has been a predecessor of the (Slovak) Comenius University (see 1919)
  • late 1918: after Czecho-Slovakia has been declared on October 28 in Prague, the leaders of Bratislava (where some 70% of the population are Germans or Hungarians, see below) want to prevent that Bratislava becomes part of Czecho-Slovakia and declare the town a free town and rename it Wilsonovo mesto (Wilson City) after US-president Wilson
  • 1919 part of Czechoslovakia after it has been taken by the Czecho-Slovak army on January 1st (left river bank) [the right river bank, not belonging to Bratislava yet at that time, was occupied only on August 14th]; on March 27, the town's official new name becomes "Bratislava"- instead of "Prešporok" (Slovak) / "Pressburg" (German) / "Pozsony" (Hungarian)
  • 1919: the (Slovak) Comenius University (Univerzita Komenského) is founded
  • 1926: the radio started broadcasting
  • 1938 (October)- 1939(March): seat of the government of the autonomous Slovakia within Czecho-Slovakia (see e.g. Jozef Tiso)
  • 1938 (November) -1945 the future city parts Petrzalka (German: Engerau) and Devín and the surroundings of Devín are occupied by fascist Germany
  • 1939-1945 the capital of Slovakia
  • 1943-1948: construction of the tunnel through the castle hill
  • 1944(June): the Allies bombard the oil refinery (see late 19th century) and the western part of the city
  • 1944(June)- 1945 (April 4): occupation by the German army
  • 1945 (April 4): liberation by the Soviet Army (see 1960) and part of Czechoslovakia again
  • 1947: the future city parts Rusovce (Hungarian:Oroszvár), Cunovo (Dunacsúny) and Jarovce (Horvátjárfalu) became part of Czechoslovakia instead of Hungary by decision of the Paris Peace Conference in order to enlarge the Bratislava bridgehead on the right bank of the Danube River
  • 1940s1970s: expansion of the town (the following villages became city parts: Karlova Ves in 1944, Devín+ Dúbravka+ Lamač+ Petržalka (right river bank)+ Prievoz+ Rača+ Vajnory in 1946, Čunovo+ Jarovce+ Rusovce (all 3 on the right river bank)+ Devínska Nová Ves+ Podunajské Biskupice+ Vrakuňa+ Záhorská Bystrica in 1972) and further modernisation (first films made in the town 1948, Slovak Philharmony 1949, Slovak National Gallery 1951, Slovak Academy of Sciences 1953, Bratislava Gallery 1959, Slovak TV 1956, (present-day) TV tower on the Kamzík Hill 1970s, connection to the gas pipeline Druzba from the USSR 1962, Bratislava Music Celebrations 1965, 2nd bridge over the Danube (Nový most) 1972, Bratislavské automobilové závody (BAZ, see 1991) 1975)
  • 19531962: reconstruction of Bratislava Castle
  • 1960: Slavin, a monument of thanks to Soviet soldiers, is built (see 1945)
  • 1960s1980s: construction of huge socialist prefab residential areas (e.g. in Rača, Dubravka, Lamač, Podunajské Biskupice, 1961-75: in Ružinov, 1967-75: in Karlova Ves, 1973-85: in Petržalka (Pertžalka itself has some 100.000 inhabitants))
  • 19671972: construction of the 2nd bridge over the Danube (Nový most); during the construction of this bridge (next to the Bratislava Castle) and its access roads almost all of the Jewish quarter in the middle of the town was demolished, including a beautiful synagogue
  • 1968 (January 1): formally declared the capital of Slovakia (which however did not exist yet officially- see October 30)
  • 1968 (August 21): invasion of Warsaw Pact armies (Prague Spring)
  • 1968 (October 30): the Federation Law is signed at the Bratislava Castle, under which Czechoslovakia will consist of the 2 republics, Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic, Bratislava being the capital of Slovakia
  • 19691992 the capital of the Federal State of Slovakia (called Slovak Socialist Republic, since 1990 Slovak Republic) within Czechoslovakia
  • 1980s2000s: the 2nd most rich town in Eastern Europe (after Prague) in terms of GDP/capita (see under Bratislava - Economy)
  • 1985: the 3rd bridge over the Danube (Prístavný most) is built
  • 1988 (March 25): the socialist Police violently scatters a peaceful demonstration of Catholics: the first anti-Communist demonstration in Czechoslovakia in the 1980s called the Candle demonstration in Bratislava
  • 1989 (September): Bratislava has its first e-mail link to the Internet (via EUnet)
  • 1989 (November 15): Alexander Dubček holds his first speech after 1970 (to people in Bratislava)
  • 1989 (November 16): one day before the well-known demonstrations in Prague, Slovak university students demonstrate against the Communists in Bratislava
  • 1989 (November 19–20): the first non-Communist party in Slovakia, the "Public against Violence" (Verejnosť proti násiliu, VPN) is created
  • 1989 (November 21): a student rally takes place in the streets of Bratislava
  • 1989 (November 22): a hundred thousand people demonstrate on the SNP Square; further demonstrations will follow
  • 1990s: Bratislava's official population decreases for the first time since the late 18th century: from 441,453 in 1991 to 428,672 in 2001
  • 1991: foundation of Volkswagen Bratislava, one of the main sources of Bratislavas prosperity in the 90s and 2000s (till 1994 as a joint-venture with the Bratislavské automobilové závody (Bratislava Car Factory) where VW held 80%, since 1994 100% VW), see also 2003
  • 1991: the 4th bridge over the Danube (Most Lafranconi) is built
  • 1992 (April): the first interactive Internet connection in Slovakia - a 9600 bit/s SLIP link from EUnet backbone (Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics) to the Technische Universität in Vienna
  • 1992 (July 17): the Declaration of Independence of Slovakia is adopted by the Slovak parliament
  • 1992 (July 23): at their meeting at Bratislava, the prime ministers of the two constituent republics of Czechoslovakia agree to split Czecho-Slovakia into 2 independent states
  • 1992 (September): the Slovak Constitution is adopted (September 1st) by the Slovak parliament and officially signed at the Bratislava Castle (September 3rd)
  • since 1993: the capital of Slovakia

21st century

  • 2003: the millionth car is produced at Volkswagen Bratislava; the factory produces the models Touareg, Polo, Seat Ibiza, Golf, Bora 4Motion and their sub-models in 2003
  • 2003: construction starts on the fifth bridge over the Danube, the Most Košická bridge: completion is planned for 2005, after completion will start reconstruction of Stary most bridge.

See also: Peace of Pressburg

Ethnic structure

The ethnic structure of the town's population during the last 2 centuries has been as follows:

1850: Germans 75%, Slovaks 18%, Hungarians 7.5% (note: all population data data before 1869 are not exact)
1880: Germans 68%,Slovaks 8%, Hungarians 8%
1910: Germans 40%, Slovaks 15%, Hungarians 40% (note: the period after 1848 was a period of strong magyarisation in Hungary; immigration of Hungarians and magyarisation in Bratislava)
1919 (August): Germans 36%, Slovaks 33%, Hungarians 29%, other 1.7%
1930: Germans 25%, Slovaks 33%, Czechs 23%, Hungarians 16%, Jews 3.833% (note: emigration of Hungarians and opportunist registering of the Hungarians as Czechs or Slovaks; immigration of Czech civil servants and teachers; the Germans remained the biggest group in the city part Old Town; religious Jews made up 12%, so that most national Jews might have registered themselves as Slovaks or Germans )
1940: Germans 20%, Slovaks 49%, Hungarians 9,525%, Jews 8,78%
1961: Germans 0.52%, Slovaks 95.15 %, Czechs 4.61 %, Hungarians 3.44 %, Jews 0% (note: Germans were evacuated when the Red Army was approching the town in 1945, Jews were eliminated during WWII or they moved thereafter)
1970: Germans 0.5%, Slovaks 92%, Czechs 4.6%, Hungarians 3.4%
1991: Germans 0.29%, Slovaks 93.39 %, Czechs 2.47%, Hungarians 4.6%
2001:Germans 0.28%, Slovaks 91.39%, Czechs and Moravians 2%, Hungarians 3.84%

Historic personalities

note: the following list only includes personalities that have already died

Andrew III (see above 1291)

Ján Bahýľ (1866–1916, Slovak inventor of flying machines)

Jozef Ignác Bajza (1755–1836, see above, buried in the St. Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava)

Matej Bel (1674–1749, Europen scientist, teacher at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (see above) for 35 years)

Ján Beloslav Bella (1843–1936, author of the first Slovak opera)

Anton Bernolák (1762–1813, author of the first Slovak language standard, see above)

Georg Rafael Donner (1693–1741, European sculptor, spent 11 years in Bratislava, author of the central sculpture in the St. Martin's Cathedral)

Alexander Dubček

János Fadrusz (in Slovak: Ján Fadrusz) (1858–1903, sculptor, born in Bratislava)

Ferdinand V of Habsburg (see above 1848)

Joseph Haydn (1732–1809, gave many performances in Bratislava)

Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778–1837, born in Bratislava, there is a museum in the house where he was born)

Gustáv Husák (1913–1991)

Karl Jetting (1730–1790, the "Robinson of Bratislava", born in Bratislava, was shipwrecked many times on the ocean, was living on an isolated island)

Ján Vlk Kempelen (1734–1804, inventor, spent most of his life in Bratislava)

Eduard Nepomuk Kozič (1829–1874, an important Slovak photographer)

Johann Sigismund Kusser (1660–1727, founder of the Hamburg Opera, composer, born in Bratislava)

Ladislaus II of Jagiellon (1456–1516, King of Bohemia and Hungary, spent most of his time in Bratislava)

Philipp Lenard (1862–1949, founder of quantum physics, gained his education in Bratislava)

Franz Liszt (1811–1886, Hungarian composer, gave many concerts in Bratislava and loved the town)

Rodion Jakovlevich Malinovskij (1898–1967, Soviet leader of the troops that liberated Bratislava in April 1944, see above)

Maria Theresa (1717–1780, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, spent much of her time in the Bratislava castle, had the town wall demolished and the castle restored; see above)

Matthias Corvinus (1443–1490, King of Hungary, founded the Universitas Istropolitana – see above, conferred many privileges to Bratislava)

Adam Fridrich Oeser (1717–1799, painter and sculptor, studies in Bratislava)

Franz Anton Maulbertsch (1724–1796, Austrian painter, working in Bratislava)

Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (1736–1783, sculptor, spent the end of his live in Bratislava, created many of his character heads in Bratislava)

Samuel Mikovini (1700–1750, scientist and technician, founder of scientific cartography in Hungary, spent 10 years in Bratislava)

Napoleon Bonaparte (see above 1805, 1809, 1811)

Oskar Nedbal (1874–1930, composer and conductor, director of the Slovak National Thater 1923–1930, conductor of the Bratislava Symphony Orchestra)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791, gave his only concert in Hungary in Bratislava)

Jozef Murgaš (1864–1929, inventor, one of the founders of radiotelegraphy, studies in Bratislava)

Paracelsus (1493–1541, chemist, scientist and doctor, long visit to Bratislava in 1537)

Peter Pázmány (1570–1637, archbishop of Esztergom, founded the University of Trnava, called the Jesuits to Bratislava in 1622)

Sándor Petöfi (1823–1849, important Hungarian poet, was often in Bratislava, actor and writer in Bratislava)

Ottakar II (see above 1271)

Alojz Rigele (1879–1940, sculptor, born in Bratislava, author of many sculptors in and on houses in Bratislava)

Johann Andrea von Segner (in Slovak: Ján Andrej Segner) (1704–1777, inventor, doctor and professor, born in Bratislava, studies in Bratislava, inventor of the Segner wheel)

Franz Schmidt (1874–1939, composer and teacher, teacher of Herbert von Karajan, born in Bratislava)

Sigismund of Luxemburg (1368–1437, central European king, conferred many important privileges to the town, had the castle reconstructed)

Ľudovít Štúr (1815–1856, one of the most important personalities of modern Slovak history, leader of the Slovak national movement in the 19th century, creator of the present-day Slovak language standard: see above 1843, spent 20 years at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (first as a student, then as a professor): see above, deputy of the Hungarian diet in Bratislava, editor of the Slovak National Newspaper (Slovenskje národnje novini))

Milan Rastilav Štefánik (1880–1919, one of the most important personalities of modern Slovak history, astronomer, a Slovak general of the French army, one of the creators of Czechoslovakia, studies in Bratislava, died at what is called today the "Milan Rastilav Štefánik Airport" of Bratislava, where his plane was shot down while landing

Július Satinský (1941–2002, important Slovak and Czechoslovak actor, spent his whole life in Bratislava, knew the town very well)

Viktor Tilgner (1844–1896, sculptor and professor in Vienna, born in Bratislava, many of his sculptures are in Bratislava, e.g., the Ganymedes Fountain and the Hummel Monument)

Jozef Tiso (1887–1947, president of WWII Slovakia)

... and all the Habsburg kings and queens crowned in Bratislava between 1563 and 1830

... and all Slovak and Hungarian nobles participating at the meetings of the Hungarian diet in Bratislava between 1542–1848

... and many other kings, dukes, scientists and politiciansde:Geschichte Bratislavas fr:Histoire de Bratislava sk:Dejiny Bratislavy


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