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Elbe

From Academic Kids

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The Elbe River (Czech Labe Template:Audio, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe, Hungarian Elba) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. It originates in the North West Czech Republic before traversing much of Germany and finally emptying into the North Sea.

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the Elbe
Contents

Geography

The Elbe rises at an altitude of about 1400 m (4593 ft). Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, the most important is the Bl Labe, or White Elbe. After plunging down the 60 km (37 miles) of the Labsky vodopd, the latter stream unites with the steep torrential Mal Labe, and thereafter the united stream of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the mountain glens at and continuing on to Pardubice, where it turns sharply to the west. At Koln some 43 km (27 miles) further on, it bends gradually towards the north-west.

A little above Brandys nad Labem it picks up the Jizera and at Mělnk it has its stream more than doubled in volume by the Vltava, a river which winds northwards through Bohemia. Some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře. Thus augmented, and swollen into a stream 140 m (459 ft) wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the Česk Středohoř, churning its way through a deep, narrow rocky gorge. Shortly after crossing the Czech-German frontier, and passing through the sandstone defiles, the stream assumes a north-westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right to the North Sea.

The river rolls through Dresden and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain passing along the former border of East Germany, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, and Hamburg on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the west, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the east. Soon the Elbe reaches Hamburg, and then passes through Holstein until it becomes merged in the North Sea off Cuxhaven. Near its debauch into the North Sea it passes Brunsbttel and the entrance to the Kiel Canal.

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Watershed of the River Elbe

Cities and municipalities on the river Elbe

Špindlerův Mlyn, Vrchlab, Dvůr Krlov nad Labem, Jaroměř, Hradec Krlov, Pardubice, Koln, Poděbrady, Nymburk, Lys nad Labem, Čelkovice, Brandys nad Labem, Star Boleslav, Neratovice, Mělnk, Roudnice nad Labem, Litoměřice, Lovosice, st nad Labem, Děčn, Bad Schandau, Knigstein, Pirna, Heidenau, Dresden, Radebeul, Meien, Riesa, Strehla, Torgau, Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Dessau, Magdeburg, Tangermnde, Wittenberge, Hitzacker, Boizenburg, Lauenburg, Geesthacht, Hamburg, Wedel, Glckstadt, Brunsbttel, Otterndorf, Cuxhaven.

Navigation

The Elbe has been navigable by commercial vessels since 1842, and provides important trade links as far inland as Prague. The river is linked by canals to the industrial areas of Germany and to Berlin. The Elbe-Lbeck Canal links the Elbe to the Baltic Sea, as does the Kiel Canal, whose western entrance is near the mouth of the Elbe.

Etymology

Its name means 'river' (cf. Scandinavian lv).

History

The Elbe has long been an important delineator of European geography. The Romans knew the river as the Albis; however, they only attempted once to move the Eastern border of their Empire forward from the Rhine to the Elbe, and this attempt failed in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, after which they never seriously tried again. In the Middle Ages it formed the eastern limit of the Empire of Charlemagne. The river's navigable sections were also essential to the success of the Hanseatic League and much trade was carried on its waters.

In 1945, as World War II was drawing to a close, Nazi Germany was caught between the armies of the western Allies advancing from the west and the Soviet Union advancing from the east. On April 25, these two forces linked up near Torgau, on the Elbe. The event was marked as Elbe Day. After the war, the Elbe formed part of the border between East and West Germany.


Template:Commonsar:إلبه bg:Елба (река) ca:Riu Elba cs:Labe da:Elben de:Elbe eo:Elbo (rivero) fa:البه fr:Elbe it:Fiume Elba la:Albis nl:Elbe nds:Ilv ja:エルベ川 pl:Łaba pt:Elba sv:Elbe

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