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Mangrove

From Academic Kids

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Mangroves.jpg
Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal

Mangrove are woody trees or shrubs that grow in coastal habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999), for which the term mangrove swamp also would apply. Mangrove plants occupy shallow water and intertidal zones in tropical and subtropical coastal regions, usually where protected from direct wave action, and thus characterized by muddy or fine sediment substrata.

The mangal is often considered a type of biome. Mangrove habitat is exclusively tropical and tidal, and therefore having soil or sediment that is water-logged and saline or of variable salinity. Areas where mangal occurs includes estuaries and marine shorelines. A wide variety of plant species can be found in mangrove habitat, but some 54 species in 20 genera, belonging to 16 families constitute the "true mangroves" — species that occur almost exclusively in mangrove habitats and rarely elsewhere (Hogarth, 1999).

The roots of the mangrove plants stabilize the sand and mud. In areas of the world where mangroves have been removed for development purposes, the coastline has been subject to rapid erosion. They also provide a habitat for wildlife and serve as a natural buffer to strong winds and waves produced by cyclones. In Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, and India, mangrove plantations are grown in coastal regions for this purpose. They can protect against tsunamis.

The mangrove species, Sonneratia, growing on the landward margin of the reef flat on  and showing abundant pneumatophores
Enlarge
The mangrove species, Sonneratia, growing on the landward margin of the reef flat on Yap and showing abundant pneumatophores
Contents

Species of mangroves

The following listing (after Tomlinson, 1986) gives the number of species of mangroves in each listed plant genus and family.

Major components

Family Avicenniaceae
  • Avicennia – 8
Family Combretaceae
  • Laguncularia – 1
  • Lumnitzera – 2
Family Arecaceae
Family Rhizophoraceae
  • Bruguiera – 6
  • Ceriops – 2
  • Kandelia – 1
  • Rhizophora – 8
Family Sonneratiaceae
  • Sonneratia – 5

Minor components

Family Bombacaceae
  • Camptostemon – 2
Family Euphorbiaceae
  • Excoecaria – 2
Family Lythraceae
  • Pemphis – 1
Family Meliaceae
  • Xylocarpus – 2
Family Myrsinaceae
  • Aegiceras – 2
Family Myrtaceae
  • Osbornia – 1
Family Pellicieraceae
  • Pelliciera – 1
Family Plumbaginaceae
  • Aegialitis – 2
Family Pteridaceae
  • Acrostichum – 3
Family Rubiaceae
  • Scyphiphora – 1
Family Sterculiaceae
  • Heritiera – 3

Mangrove ecoregions

Afrotropic ecozone

Central African mangroves (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria)
East African mangroves (Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania)
Guinean mangroves (Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cte d'Ivoire)
Madagascar mangroves (Madagascar)
Southern Africa mangroves (Mozambique, South Africa)

Australasia ecozone

New Guinea mangroves (Indonesia)

Indomalaya ecozone

Chorao Island mangroves (Goa-India)
Chilka Lake (Orissa-India)
Godavari-Krishna mangroves (India)
Indochina mangroves (Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam)
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves (Pakistan)
Myanmar coast mangroves (India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)
Pichavaram mangroves (Tamil Nadu-India)
Sunda Shelf mangroves (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia)
Sundarbans mangroves (Bangladesh, India)

Neotropic ecozone

Alvarado mangroves (Mexico)
Amapa mangroves (Brazil)
Bahamian mangroves (Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands)
Bahia mangroves (Brazil)
Belizean Coast mangroves (Belize)
Belizean Reef mangroves (Belize)
Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves (Costa Rica, Panama)
Coastal Venezuelan mangroves (Venezuela)
Esmeraldes-Pacific Colombia mangroves (Colombia, Ecuador)
Greater Antilles mangroves (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico)
Guianan mangroves (French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
Gulf of Fonseca mangroves (El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua)
Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves (Ecuador and Tumbes, Peru)
Gulf of Panama mangroves (Panama)
Ilha Grande mangroves (Brazil)
Lesser Antilles mangroves (Lesser Antilles)
Magdalena-Santa Marta mangroves (Colombia)
Manab mangroves (Ecuador)
Maranhao mangroves (Brazil)
Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves (Mexico)
Mayan Corridor mangroves (Mexico)
Mexican South Pacific Coast mangroves (Mexico)
Moist Pacific Coast mangroves (Costa Rica, Panama)
Mosquitia-Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast mangroves (Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua)
Northern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves (El Salvador, Guatemala)
Northern Honduras mangroves (Guatemala, Honduras)
Par mangroves (Brazil)
Petenes mangroves (Mexico)
Piura mangroves (Peru)
Ra Lagartos mangroves (Mexico)
Rio Negro-Rio San Sun mangroves (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)
Rio Piranhas mangroves (Brazil)
Rio So Francisco mangroves (Brazil)
Southern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)
Tehuantepec-El Manchon mangroves (Mexico)
Trinidad mangroves (Trinidad and Tobago)
Usumacinta mangroves (Mexico)


Template:Terrestrial biomes

Ecozones
Afrotropic | Antarctic | Australasia | Indomalaya | Nearctic | Neotropic | Oceania | Palearctic

Reference

  • Hogarth, Peter J. 1999. The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford Univ. Press. 228 p. ISBN 0198502222
  • Thanikaimoni, G. 1986. Mangrove Palynology. UNDP/UNESCO and the French Institute of Pondicherry, 104 p. ISSN 0073-8336 (E).
  • Tomlinson, P. B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
  • tsunami protection (http://forests.org/articles/reader.asp?linkid=37762)


External link

et:Mangroov es:Manglares fr:Mangrove ja:マングローブ pl:Namorzyny pt:Manguezal sk:Mangrovnk

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