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Honduras

From Academic Kids

Honduras is a country in northern Central America, bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the south west El Salvador, to the south east by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras and the Caribbean Sea. Belize (formerly "British Honduras") is 75 km away across the Bay of Honduras.

Rep?a de Honduras
Flag of Honduras Coat of arms of Honduras
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: none1
image:LocationHonduras.png
Official language Spanish
Capital Tegucigalpa
Capital's coordinates Template:Coor dm
President Ricardo Maduro
Area

 - Total
 - % water

Ranked 101st

  112,090 km?
  Negligible

Population

 - Total (2000)
 - Density

96th

  6,249,598
  xxx/km²

Independence

 - Declared
 - Recognised

(from Spain)

  15 September 1821
  1823

Currency Lempira
Time zone UTC -6
National anthem 'Tu bandera es un lampo de cielo'
Internet TLD .hn
Calling Code 504
1 Although not an official motto is sanctioned, "NO PASARAN" or "They shall not pass" became popular during the 1969 war with El Salvador. This making allusion to the Salvadoran stated goal to reach the Honduran Caribbean coast during their offensive.
Contents

History

Main article: History of Honduras

The Pre-Columbian city of [[Copᮝ] is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the CopᮠDepartment, near to the Guatemalan border. It is the site of a major Maya kingdom of the Classic era. The kingdom, anciently named Xukpi (Corner-Bundle), flourished from the 5th century AD to the early 9th century, with antecedents going back to at least the 2nd century AD. The Maya civilization decayed and by the time the Spanish came to Honduras the once great city-state of Copᮠwas overrun by the jungle.

After the Spanish discovery and subsequent conquest, Honduras became part of Spain's vast empire in the New World. The Spanish ruled Honduras for approximately 3 centuries.

Honduras became a state in the United Provinces of Central America in 1821, and an independent republic with the demise of the union in 1840.

The Football War of 1969 was fought with El Salvador.

After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras was used by anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Nicaraguan government and an ally to Salvadoran government forces fighting against leftist guerrillas.

Hurricane Mitch devastated the country and wrecked its economy in 1998.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Honduras

See also: President of Honduras

Departments

Main article: Departments of Honduras

Honduras is divided into 18 departments.

Geography

Missing image
Honduras_sm04.png
Map of Honduras

Main article: Geography of Honduras

Honduras borders the Caribbean Sea with its north coast and the Pacific Ocean south, by the Gulf of Fonseca. The climate varies from tropical in lowlands to temperate in mountains. The central and southern regions are relatively less humid than the north coast.

Honduran terrain consists mainly of mountains (80%), but there are narrow plains along the coasts, a large undeveloped lowland jungle La Mosquita region in the north east, and the heavily populated lowland San Pedro Sula valley in the north west.

Natural resources include timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, and hydropower.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Honduras

Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the American hemisphere, with GDP per capita at $US2050 per year (1999).. Under the presidency of Ricardo Maduro the economy has continued to grow slowly but the distribution of wealth remains very polarized.

The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have classified Honduras as one of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries eligible for debt relief.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Honduras

The population of Honduras is predominantly of Mestizo descent and Roman Catholic faith.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Honduras

The patron saint of Honduras is the Virgin of Suyapa.

A Honduran can be called ta Catracho or Catracha. The word is derived from the last name of Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who lead Honduran armed forces in the defense of Honduran territories in 1857, against an attempted invasion lead by North American pirate William Walker. The nickname is considered complimentary not derogatory.

One of Honduras' best known writers is Ram󮠁maya Amador.

Oscar Andres Rodriguez is a Cardinal who was a potential candidate for Pope in the Papal conclave, 2005.

Environment

The Mesoamerican region, the landmass that extends from Southern Mexico to Panama is known for its high diversity of species, and thus, often called a biodiversity hotspot. Like the rest of the countries in the region, Honduras contains a relatively high diversity of biological resources and indigenous cultures. For instance, it is believed that approximately 6,000-8,000 species of vascular plants are distributed across the country. The number of reptiles and amphibians species recorded so far is around 245; birds can be between 650-700 species, and mammal species are close to 110.

In the northeastern region of La Mosquitia lies the [[R�Plᴡno Biosphere Reserve]], a lowland rainforest which provides home to a great diversity of life. Sometimes called "The Last Lungs of Central America", this Reserve was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites List in 1982.

Miscellaneous topics

Note: Some of these articles are based on text from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the U.S. Department of State website.


Countries in North America
Antigua and Barbuda | Bahamas | Barbados | Belize | Canada | Costa Rica | Cuba | Dominica | Dominican Republic | El Salvador | Grenada | Guatemala | Haiti | Honduras | Jamaica | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia | Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Trinidad and Tobago | United States
Dependencies: Anguilla | Aruba | Bermuda | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Greenland | Guadeloupe | Martinique | Montserrat | Navassa Island | Netherlands Antilles | Puerto Rico | Saint-Pierre and Miquelon | Turks and Caicos Islands | U.S. Virgin Islands
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