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Indomalaya

From Academic Kids

The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region.

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Indomalaya.png
The Indomalaya Ecozone

It extends from the Makran region of southern Pakistan through the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to lowland southern China, and through Indonesia as far as Java, Bali, and Borneo, east of which lies the Wallace line, the ecozone boundary named after Alfred Russel Wallace which separates Indomalaya from Australasia. Indomalaya also includes the Philippines, lowland Taiwan and Japan's Ryukyu Islands.

Most of Indomalaya was originally covered by forest, mostly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, with tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests predominant in much of India and parts of Southeast Asia. The tropical moist forests of Indomalaya are dominated by trees of the dipterocarp family (Dipterocarpaceae).

Malesia is a botanical province which straddles the boundary between Indomalaya and Australasia. It includes the Malay Peninsula and the western Indonesian islands (known as Sundaland), the Philippines, the eastern Indonesian islands, and New Guinea. While the region has much in common botanically, they differ greatly in land animal species; Sundaland shares its fauna with mainland Asia, while the islands east of the Wallace line either lack land mammals, or are home to a land fauna derived from Australia, which includes marsupial mammals and ratite birds.

One order of mammals, the colugos (Dermoptera), is endemic to the ecozone, as are families Tupaiidae (tree shrews) and Hylobatidae (gibbons). Large mammals characteristic of Indomalaya include the leopard, tiger, water buffalo, Indian elephant, Indian Rhinoceros, Javan Rhinoceros, Malayan Tapir, orangutan, gibbon, and tarsier.

Indomalaya has two endemic bird families, the Irenidae (leafbirds and fairy bluebirds) and Megalaimidae. Also characteristic are pheasants, pittas, Old World babblers, and flowerpeckers.

The flora of Indomalaya blends elements from Laurasia and Gondwana. Gondwanian elements were first introduced by India, which detached from Gondwana approximately 90 MYA, carrying its Gondwana-derived flora and fauna, including the flowering plant families Crypteroniaceae and possibly Dipterocarpaceae, and cichlid fish. India collided with Asia 30-45 MYA, and exchanged species. Later, as Australia-New Guinea drifted north, the collision of the Australian and Asian plates pushed up the islands of Wallacea, which were separated from one another by narrow straits, allowing a botanic exchange between Indomalaya and Australasia. Asian rainforest flora, including the dipterocarps, island-hopped across Wallacea to New Guinea, and several Gondwanian plant families, including podocarps and araucarias, moved westward from Australia-New Guinea into western Malesia and Southeast Asia.

See also:

List of Indomalaya ecoregions
Malesia
Sundaland
Ecoregions of India
Ecoregions of the Philippines

Indomalaya Terrestrial Ecoregions

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Andaman Islands rain forests (India)
Borneo lowland rain forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
Borneo montane rain forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
Borneo peat swamp forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests (India)
Cardamom Mountains rain forests (Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam)
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests (Thailand)
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests (Thailand)
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests (India, Myanmar)
Christmas and Cocos Islands tropical forests (Australia)
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests (India)
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests (Indonesia)
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests (Indonesia)
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests (Philippines)
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests (China)
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal)
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests (Myanmar)
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests (Myanmar)
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests (China)
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests (Myanmar, Thailand)
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests (Laos, Thailand, Vietnam)
Luang Prabang montane rain forests (Laos)
Luzon montane rain forests (Philippines)
Luzon rain forests (Philippines)
Malabar Coast moist forests (India)
Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests (British Indian Ocean Territory, India, Maldives)
Meghalaya subtropical forests (India)
Mentawai Islands rain forests (Indonesia)
Mindanao montane rain forests (Philippines)
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests (Philippines)
Mindoro rain forests (Philippines)
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar)
Myanmar coastal rain forests (Myanmar)
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests (Japan)
Nicobar Islands rain forests (India)
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests (India)
North Western Ghats montane rain forests (India)
Northern Annamites rain forests (Laos, Vietnam)
Northern Indochina subtropical forests (China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests (Laos, Thailand)
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests (Laos, Thailand)
Northern Triangle subtropical forests (Myanmar)
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests (Vietnam)
Orissa semi-evergreen forests (India)
Palawan rain forests (Philippines)
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests (Malaysia, Thailand)
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests (Malaysia, Thailand)
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
Red River freshwater swamp forests (Vietnam)
South China Sea Islands (disputed between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam)
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests (China, Vietnam)
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests (Taiwan)
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests (India)
South Western Ghats montane rain forests (India)
Southern Annamites montane rain forests (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia)
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests (Sri Lanka)
Sri Lanka montane rain forests (Sri Lanka)
Sulu Archipelago rain forests (Philippines)
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia)
Sumatran lowland rain forests (Indonesia)
Sumatran montane rain forests (Indonesia)
Sumatran peat swamp forests (Indonesia)
Sundaland heath forests (Indonesia)
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests (Bangladesh, India)
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests (Taiwan)
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests (Malaysia' Myanmar, Thailand)
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests (Cambodia, Vietnam)
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests (Cambodia, Vietnam)
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests (India)
Western Java montane rain forests (Indonesia)
Western Java rain forests (Indonesia)
Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests (India)
Central Indochina dry forests (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam)
Chota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests (India)
East Deccan dry evergreen forests (India)
Irrawaddy dry forests (Myanmar)
Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests (India)
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests (India)
Northern dry deciduous forests (India)
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests (India)
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand)
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests (Vietnam)
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests (Sri Lanka)
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan)
Luzon tropical pine forests (Philippines)
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests (India, Myanmar)
Sumatran tropical pine forests (Indonesia)
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal)
Northern Triangle temperate forests (Myanmar)
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests (India, Nepal, Pakistan)
Temperate coniferous forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal)
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests (India, Nepal, Pakistan)
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands (Bhutan, India, Nepal)
Flooded grasslands and savannas
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh (India, Pakistan)
Montane grasslands and shrublands
Kinabalu montane alpine meadows (Indonesia)
Deserts and xeric shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests (India)
Indus Valley desert (India, Pakistan)
Northwestern thorn scrub forests (India, Pakistan)
Thar desert (India, Pakistan)
Mangrove

Godavari-Krishna mangroves (India)
Indochina mangroves (Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam)
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves (Pakistan)
Myanmar coast mangroves (India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)
Sunda Shelf mangroves (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia)
Sundarbans mangroves (Bangladesh, India)


Template:Terrestrial biomes

Ecozones
Afrotropic | Antarctic | Australasia | Indomalaya | Nearctic | Neotropic | Oceania | Palearctic

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