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Neapolitan War

From Academic Kids

The Neapolitan War in 1815 was a short war between Kingdom of Naples and Austrian Empire in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars in Europe.

In 1812 the King of Naples, Joachim Murat, took part in Napoleon's Russian campaign and once more distinguished himself at Borodino; but, left in charge of the shattered Grand Army during the retreat from Moscow, he abandoned it to try to save his kingdom. In 1813 he wavered between loyalty to Napoleon and negotiation with the Allies. The Austrians signed a treaty with him, but the former Bourbon rulers of Naples raised objections, and his situation was in doubt when Napoleon returned to France for the Hundred Days in 1815 .

The Congress of Vienna (1814-15), held by the victorious allies to restore the pre-Revolutionary European political status quo after Napoleon's reign, determined that the Bourbons should be returned to Naples. For this reason, taking advantage of Napoleon's escape from Elba to France on March 1, 1815, and his return to power, Joachim Murat opted to change sides yet one more time and declared war on Austria on March 15, 1815. By the Rimini proclamation on March 30 he incited all Italian nationalists to war, but no general insurrection occurred. Quickly defeated by the Austrians at Tolentino, he was forced to flee to Corsica. From his exile he moved to a base in Calabria in order to attempt the reconquest of his kingdom. Recaptured by Bourbon troops, he was executed in October 1815.

Major Events of the Neapolitan War

March 30, 1815 Rimini proclamation[1] (http://www.regione.piemonte.it/cultura/risorgimento/immagine/00402.htm): Murat calls for the help of Italian patriots to unify Italy.

May 3, 1815 Battle of Tolentino. The Austrian 10,000 troops under Field Marshal baron Frederick Bianchi routes the Neapolitan army under Murat.

May 18, 1815 Murat flees Naples.

May 20, 1815 Neapolitan Generals Guglielmo Pepe and Carrascosa conclude a Convention of Casalanza with the Austrians on favorable terms. The Bourbones return to Naples.

May 23, 1815 Austrian troops enter Naples to restore Bourbon rule.

October 8, 1815 Murat lands with 28 men at Pizzo (Calabria) to reconquer his throne in Naples, but is captured and shot on October 13, 1815.

The name Neapolitan war also refers to French King Charles VIII's wars in order to capture Naples in 1494-1495.

External links

  • Neapolitan War (http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/november/neapolitan1815.htm)
  • Neapolitan Military (http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/15cen/neapolitan14941495.html) the war of the 15th century.
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