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Montenegro

From Academic Kids

This article is about the republic in Serbia-Montenegro, Europe. See also: Montenegro, Brazil or Montenegro, Colombia.
Република Црна Гора
Republika Crna Gora

Republic of Montenegro
Flag of Montenegro Coat of Arms of Montenegro
Flag of Montenegro Coat of Arms
of Montenegro
 Map of Montenegro within the state union Template:Serbia and Montenegro 2
Official language Serbian
Capital Podgorica
Former Royal Capital Cetinje
President Filip Vujanović
Prime Minister Milo Đukanović
Area
 – Total
 – % water

 13,812 km²
 n/a
Population
 – Total (2003)
 – Density

 616,258
 48.7/km²
Ethnic groups Montenegrins: 43%
Serbs: 32%
Bosniaks: 8%
Albanians: 7%
Others: 10%
National Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Official melodic version (mp3) (http://www.predsjednik.cg.yu/slike/1097575630.mp3)
Currency Euro
Time zone CET (UTC +1)

CEST (UTC +2)

Airline Carrier Montenegro Airlines
Internet TLD .yu still used (.cs reserved)

The Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: Црна Гора, Crna Gora, meaning "black mountain") is a small, mountainous republic in the Balkans, on the Adriatic Sea. According to its constitution, it is a democratic, social, and ecological state.

Throughout a number of centuries Montenegro was a de facto independent principality ruled by a succession of dynasties and rulers. The country obtained de jure international recognition of its independence, following the Eastern Crisis (1875-1878), at the Congress of Berlin. On 28 August 1910, Montenegro's ruler Prince Nikola Petrović Njegoš proclaimed himself King. Between 1945 and 2003, Montenegro was a Republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia respectively. It is now one of two constituent parts of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.

Internationally, it borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska), and Albania. Within the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro it borders Serbia (including the southern Serbian province Kosovo and Metohia).

The principal cities and towns of Montenegro are: the capital Podgorica (139,100 inhabitants), Nikšić (61,700), Pljevlja (18,800), and Bijelo Polje (17,100). The former royal capital and the seat of the throne is Cetinje.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Montenegro

Geography

Main article: Geography of Montenegro

Missing image
Map_of_montenegro_large.jpg
Map of Montenegro

The Montenegrin surface ranges from high peaks along its borders with Kosovo and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only one to four miles wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovcen and Mount Orjen plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor.

Montenegro's vast Karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 meters above sea level - however some parts rise to 2,000 meters like Mount Orjen (1894 m), the highest masif among the coastal limestone ranges. Zeta River valley is the lowest segment at an elevation of 500 meters.

The rough mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 meters in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches a height of 2,522 meters. The Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

See also: List of cities in Montenegro

Demographics

Missing image
Montenegro_ethnic.jpg
Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the 2003 census

Main article: Demographic history of Montenegro

Ethnic composition according to the 2003 census:

NB: Montenegrin and Serb identities are not exclusive and the size of each group varies wildly with each census, due to political events and as people view themselves, on balance, as more one than the other. For example, a "Montenegrin" may view himself as a "Serb" as well, and vice versa. Of course, in both groups there are those who view themselves as belonging to one group exclusively.

In the constitution of Montenegro adopted in 1992, the official language of the republic was changed from Serbo-Croat to Serbian of the Ijekavian standard. As of 2003, 59.67% of the population declare Serbian their mother tongue, while almost 22% declare Montenegrin language. The used dialects are not the same, but are very similar to those used by Croatians in South Croatia and Bosnians, Croats and Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with slight nuances.

Over 74% of Montenegrins are Eastern Orthodox Christians, belonging to the Serb Orthodox Church and the Montenegrin Orthodox Church. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was officially re-established in 1993, following a proscription against the church issued by King Alexander in Belgrade back in 1920, when the Montenegrin Orthodox Church was forcefully assimilated by the Serb Orthodox Church. However, its following is still small. It has been recognised by Bulgarian and Ukrainian Orthodox church. 110,000 Muslims make up 17.74% of Montenegro's population. They are divided into three main groups: ethnic Albanians and Slavic Muslims split among Bosniaks and Muslims. Albanians are a separate group, speaking their own language (5.26%) and living mostly in the east, especially in Ulcinj, where they form the majority of the population. Bosniaks are Slavic Muslims speaking the Bosnian language living mostly in the north. Finally, there are a few Catholic inhabitants, who live mostly in the coastal areas, particularly Boka Kotorska.

Union with Serbia

On the last referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, 95.96% of the votes were cast for keeping the federation with Serbia, although the turnout was at 66% because of a boycott by the Muslim and Catholic minorities as well as of pro-independence Montenegrins. Proponents of independence claim that the poll was organized in undemocratic conditions, with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote.

In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government de facto severed ties between Montenegro and Serbia (back then still under Milošević). The tensions between the two states still simmer regardless of the political changes in Belgrade. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and switched to the Deutsche Mark as its currency as proposed by foreign economic advisors at the time. It is currently exclusively using the euro, though it is not formally part of the Eurozone. Serbian Dinar is not legal tender in Montenegro and is only accepted at a few tourist resorts.

The current and previous government of Montenegro are carrying out pro-independence policies. They postponed the census twice (from 2001 to 2002 and then November 2003). They also postponed the independence referendum countless times, which caused many independence supporters to lose faith in the government's will for independence.

In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued cooperation. In 2003, the Yugoslav federation was replaced in favor of a looser state union named Serbia and Montenegro and the possible referendum for Montenegro's independence was postponed until 2006.

The status of the state union between Serbia and Montenegro is probably going to be decided when the three-year-set moratorium on an independence referendum ends.

Symbols

Montenegro's parliament on July 12, 2004, adopted a new flag, national day, and anthem, as part of a push for the republic's independence from the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.

The flag of the former Montenegrin monarchy: the gold coat of arms of the King Nikola on red field with a gold border (the initials НI of King Nikola, however, are left out), shown above, was adopted as the official flag of Montenegro on July 12th 2004 by the Parliament of Montenegro.

The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognised Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world and the start of the first popular uprising in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.

Parliament selected one of the best known Montenegrin folk songs, "Oh the Bright Dawn of May", as the national anthem. The decision was unsuccessfully opposed by the Serb opposition parties in Montenegro and the Serbian Orthodox Church in Belgrade - on the basis that two verses of the specific version chosen by the Montenegrin government were originally arranged by Nazi collaborator Drljević in the early 20th century.

See also

External links


Flag of Serbia and Montenegro State Union Serbia and Montenegro Missing image
Srcoa.gif
Flag of Serbia

Flag of Montenegro

Republics: Serbia | Montenegro

Autonomous provinces of Serbia: Kosovo and Metohija | Vojvodina

bg:Черна гора (република) da:Montenegro de:Montenegro et:Montenegro es:Montenegro eo:Montenegro fr:Montngro he:מונטנגרו ja:モンテネグロ ko:몬테네그로 lt:Juodkalnija nl:Montenegro nds:Montenegro pl:Czarnogra pt:Montenegro ru:Черногория sl:Črna gora sr:Црна Гора fi:Montenegro sv:Montenegro zh:蒙特內格羅

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