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List of rulers of Austria

From Academic Kids

This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. Template:Austrians

Contents

Origins

Austria became one of the marches (in later times sometimes called the Ostmark) of the Holy Roman Empire after the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, and was given a margrave around 960. Until 1246 Austria was ruled by the Babenberg family.

Margraves of Austria

Dukes of Austria (from 1155)

Babenberg Dukes

Interregnum

The inheritage of the duchy passed to the Margraves of Baden through Frederick II's sister, Gertrude, but they did not manage to establish themselves in the country and were rejected by the estates

In 1251, Przemysl Ottokar II took control of the country.

Habsburg Dukes and Archdukes of Austria

In 1278, Rudolph I defeated Ottokar and secured the duchy for the Habsburg dynasty, whose heads were often also Holy Roman Emperors.

In the Privilegium Maius of 1359, Rudolf attempted to elevate Austria to an archduchy. The title of Archduke was first used by Ernest the Iron and formally recognized on the level of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Frederick III only in 1453.

Many of the dukes and archdukes were also Holy Roman Emperors.

The territories were split among different lines of the dynasty after 1379 (Treaty of Neuberg)

After 1490, the Austrian territories were reunified under Habsburg rule:

Emperors of Austria

The Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806. Francis II had already taken the title of Francis I, Emperor of Austria, in 1804 (see Austrian Empire).

Republic of Austria

In 1918, a Republic was established. The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), the (in practice much more important) head of government is the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler).

For lists of officeholders, see

See also

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