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The langue d'oïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands.

Care should be taken to differentiate these two uses of the term:

  1. Langue d'oïl is an Old French term meaning language of oïl. Modern-day languages of this family are also referred to in English as Oïl languages. Since the latter half of the 20th century the tendency in French has been to refer to the languages in the plural as langues d'oïl to clearly distinguish one language taken in isolation or the linguistic grouping as a whole.
  2. The term langue d'oïl is also used in a historical sense to refer to Old French, which was distinguished from another Gallo-Romance variety, the langue d'oc, by the word meaning "yes" in those languages. Vulgar Latin developed different methods of signifying assent: hoc ille for Langue d'oil and hoc for Langue d'oc. the subsequent development of "oïl" into "oui" can be seen in modern French.


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History

The language generally referred to as French is an Oïl language, but the territories of France have for centuries included large groups of speakers of Oïl languages other than French, as well as speakers of languages outside the Oïl language family (see Languages of France)

Although there were competing literary standards among the Oïl languages in the mediaeval period, the centralisation of the French kingdom and its influence even outside its formal borders sent most of the Oïl languages into comparative obscurity for several centuries.

Two main theories have been put forward to explain the rise of French language:

The Francien theory

It is claimed that Francien, the Oïl language of the Paris region and therefore of the French court, was simply imposed as the official language in all the territory of the kingdom because it was the language the king spoke. This Francien, it is claimed, became the modern French language.

Current linguistic thinking mostly discounts the Francien theory, although it is still often quoted in popular textbooks.

The Lingua franca theory

Most linguists working in the field tend to advance variations on the theory that the "French" language, imposed by the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts to replace Latin, was not a particular variety of Oïl language, but rather a generalised administrative language, shorn of distinguishing regional features and equally comprehensible to all - a lingua franca.

It is argued that this language was not intended to become a national language, merely a chancery language for law and administration. However, the development of literature in this new language encouraged writers to use French rather than their own regional languages. This led to the decline of vernacular literature.

Until the First World War, French was not primarily the language of the French people - the regional languages of France were still the languages most used in the home and in the fields. This was also generally the case with the Oïl languages.

Literature

Besides the influence of French literature, small-scale literature has survived in the other Oïl languages. Theatrical writing is most notable in Picard and Poitevin-Saintongeais. Oral performance (story-telling) is a feature of Gallo, for example, while Norman and Walloon literature, especially from the early 19th century tends to focus on written texts and poetry (see, for example, Wace and Jèrriais literature).

Status

Apart from French, an official language in many countries, the Oïl languages have enjoyed little status.

Currently Walloon, Lorrain (under the local name of Gaumais) and Champenois have the status of regional languages of Wallonia.

The languages of the Channel Islands enjoy a certain status under the governments of their Bailiwicks and within the regional and lesser-used language framework of the British-Irish Council.

The French government recognises the Oïl languages as Languages of France but has been constitutionally barred from ratifying the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

Influence

The English language was heavily influenced by contact with Norman following the Norman Conquest and much of the adopted vocabulary shows typically Norman features. See Anglo-Norman language

The French spoken in Belgium shows some influence from Walloon.

The langue d'oïl languages were more or less influenced by the native languages of the conquering Germanic tribes, notably Franks.

The development of French in North America was influenced by the speech of settlers originating from north-western France, many of whom introduced features of their Oïl varieties into the French they spoke.

Oïl languages

This list follows the Francien theory, as explained above.

Creoles derived from French

Creoles and pidgins developed from a basis of French are sometimes included among the Oïl languages.

de:Langues d'oïl es:Lenguas de oïl fr:Langues d'oïl nds:Langues d'oïl pl:Langues d'oïl wa:Lingaedje d' oyi

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