Historical capital of China

From Academic Kids

Numerous cities have been the capital of China during the course of history.

  • Beijing (formerly Anglicized as Peking and briefly Peiping) was and has been the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
State of Yan in Spring and Autumn Period: called Ji (薊 J쩊
Liao Dynasty, as a secondary capital: called Yanjing (燕京 Yānjīng "capital of Yan")
Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) from Jin Shi Zong until 1220s (1217?): called Zhongdu (中都 Zhōngdū "central capital")
Yuan Dynasty: Khanbalik (Mongolian: the Khan's city); translated to Chinese as Dदamp;#363; (大都 "great capital"). This was reported as Cambaluc by Marco Polo.
Ming Dynasty since Yongle Emperor of China: called Jīngshī (京師 "capital")
Qing Dynasty since the fall of Ming in 1644.
The Beiyang Government of the Republic of China.
the current capital of the People's Republic of China
  • Changchun was the capital of the Manchukuo, a nominally independent puppet state set up by the Japanese in Manchuria from 1931 to 1945: called Xingjing or Tsinking (新京; Xīnjīng"new capital")
The Wu Yue Kingdom (904-978), during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
China during the Southern Song: called Lin'an (临安 L�ān)
  • Kaifeng was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
Later Liang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Later Jin Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Later Han Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Later Zhou Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Northern Song Dynasty: called Dongjing (东京 Dōngjīng)
  • Luoyang was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
Eastern Zhou Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty from 25 to 220.
Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms.
Western Jin Dynasty
Northern Wei Dynasty since 493, moved its capital from Datong.
Later Tang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
  • Nanjing (formerly Anglicized as Nanking) was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
all of the Six Dynasties: called Jianye (建业 Jiஹ詠or Jiankang (建康 Ji஫āng). The Six Dynasties are:
Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms
Eastern Jin Dynasty
Song Dynasty
Qi Dynasty,
Liang Dynasty
Chen Dynasty
Ming Dynasty before Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing.
Republic of China after the Northern Expedition until the Japanese invasion in 1937 of WWII, and after the war until Chiang Kai-Shek retreated to Taiwan in 1949.
collaborationist government of Wang Jingwei
  • Xi'an (called Chang'an in ancient times) was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
State of Qin in Spring and Autumn Period and Qin Dynasty 778 BC-207 BC: Xi'an is located near the Qin capital which is called Xianyang (咸阳 Xi᮹ᮧ)
Western Han Dynasty, from 206 BC to AD 9.
Western Wei Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
Tang Dynasty

The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (中国四大古都 pinyin Zhōnggu󠓬 Dࠇǔdū) refers to Nanjing, Beijing, Xi'an, and Luoyang. The phrase Seven Ancient Capitals of China also include Hangzhou, Kaifeng, and Anyang; in 2004 the China Ancient Capital Society officially added Zhengzhou as an eighth thanks to archaeological finds there.


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