Geography of Germany

This article describes the geography of Germany.

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Location of Germany


Central Europe on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Seabordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark and north of Austria and Switzerland.
Geographic coordinates:
Template:Coor dm
Map references: Europe


  • Total: 357,021 km²
  • Land: 349,223 km²
  • Water: 7,798 km²


Temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm föhn wind. The greater part of Germany lies in the cool/temperate climatic zone in which humid westerly winds predominate. In the north-west and the north the climate is extremely oceanic and rain falls all the year round. Winters there are relatively mild and summers comparatively cool. In the east the climate shows clear continental features; winters can be very cold for long periods, and summers can become very warm. Here, too, long dry periods are often recorded. In the centre and the south there is a transitional climate which may be predominantly oceanic or continental, according to the general weather situation.

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Altitude levels


Lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south Elevation extremes

Land boundaries


  • length 2,389 km
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Maritime claims


See list of rivers in Germany


Land use

  • Arable land: 33%
  • Permanent crops: 1%
  • Permanent pastures: 15%
  • Forests and woodland: 31%
  • Other: 20% (1993 est.)

Natural resources

Irrigated land

4,750 km² (1993 est.)

Natural hazards

  • Flooding

Environment--Current issues

  • Emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government (under Chancellor Schröder, SPD) announced intent to end the use of nuclear power for producing electricity; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

Environment--International Agreements

  • Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  • Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Extreme points

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Extreme points

This is a list of the extreme points of Germany, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.

The northernmost point in mainland Germany lies near Aventoft, Schleswig-Holstein

The extreme points of medieval Germany are mentioned in the first stanza of Das Lied der Deutschen, of which the third stanza is today the national anthem of Germany. They were in part no longer accurate when the song was penned, because Austria and Flanders had different affiliations by then. The limits mentioned are the rivers Meuse/Maas which crosses France, Belgium and the Netherlands, the Neman River, which runs through Belarus and Lithuania but previously formed part of the border of East Prussia, the Adige in German-speaking South Tyrol which was transferred from the Habsburg Empire to Italy after World War I, and the Belt which is a part of the Baltic Sea between Germany and Denmark.

See Also

fr:Géographie de l'Allemagne lt:Vokietijos geografija pt:Geografia da Alemanha


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