Federal subjects of Russia

Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. subyekt). These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). However, they do differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Each subject of the federation belongs to one of the following categories:

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  1. 21 republics (states) (Russian: республики, sing. республика; English transliteration: respubliki, sing. respublika) - nominally autonomous with supposed right to secede, each has its own constitution, president and parliament; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; and is supposedly home to a specific ethnic minority.
  2. 49 oblasts (provinces) (Russian: области, sing. область; English transliteration: oblasti, sing. oblast) - most common, regular administrative units with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature.
  3. 6 krais (territories) (Russian: края, sing. край; English transliteration: kraya, sing. krai or kray, the latter being more grammatically correct, but less common) - similar to oblasts but usually more peripheral and less populated.
  4. 1 autonomous oblast (Russian: автономная область; English transliteration: avtonomnaya oblast).
  5. 10 autonomous districts (Russian: автономные округа, sing. автономный округ; English transliteration: avtonomnyye okruga, sing. avtonomny okrug) - more autonomous than oblasts but less than republics; usually with substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
  6. 2 federal cities (city states)(Russian: федеральные города, sing. федеральный город; English transliteration: federalnyye goroda, sing. federalny gorod) - major cities that function as separate regions.

Some of these subjects will be merged into larger territories (Krais) starting in 2004. The first new one to be formed will be the Perm Krai, comprising the current Perm Oblast and Autonomous district of the Komi-Permyaks (59 and 81 respectively in the map below). The new territory is scheduled to come into being on December 1, 2005. A referendum to decide on merging the Irkutsk Oblast with the Autonomous district of the Ust-Ordinsk Buryats into an Irkutsk Krai will be held in 2004. On April 17 2005, a referendum was held in the Autonomous districts of the Evenks and the Taymyr and the Krasnoyarsk Krai about incorporating the two former into the latter; the result was approval, and the merger is to take place on January 1 2007. Other projects include merging the Yamal Nenetses with the Tyumen Oblast to form a Tyumen Krai; uniting the Kamchatka Oblast and the Autonomous District of Koryakia; combining the Autonomous district of the Aga Buryats with the Chita Oblast; and even merging the existing Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts, the Komi Republic and the Autonomous district of the Nenetses to form a proposed Northern, or Arctic Krai, or a Republic of Pomors-Nenetses.

No.Abbr.Subject of the federationCapital cityFederal districtEconomic region
Republics - республики - respubliki
01 AD Adygeya (Адыгея) Maykop (Майкоп) Southern North Caucasus
02 BA Bashkortostan (Башкортостан) Ufa (Уфа) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals
03 BU Buryatia (Бурятия) Ulan-Ude (Улан-Удэ) Siberian East Siberia
04 AL Altai Republic (Алтай) Gorno-Altaysk (Горно-Алтайск) Siberian West Siberia
05 DA Dagestan (Дагестан) Makhachkala (Махачкала) Southern North Caucasus
06 IN Ingushetia (Ингушская) Magas (Магас) Southern North Caucasus
07 KB Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабардино-Балкарская) Nalchik (Нальчик) Southern North Caucasus
08 KL Kalmykia (Калмыкия) Elista (Элиста) Southern Povolzhye
09 KC Karachay-Cherkessia (Карачаево-Черкесская) Cherkessk (Черкесск) Southern North Caucasus
10 KR Karelia (Карелия) Petrozavodsk (Петрозаводск) Northwestern North
11 KO Komi (Коми) Syktyvkar (Сыктывкар) Northwestern North
12 ME Mari El (Марий-Эл) Yoshkar-Ola (Йошкар-Ола) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka
13 MO Mordovia (Мордовия) Saransk (Саранск) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka
14 SA Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия)) Yakutsk (Якутск) Far Eastern Far East
15 SE North Ossetia (Alania) (Северная Осетия) Vladikavkaz (Владикавказ) Southern North Caucasus
16 TA Tatarstan (Татарстан) Kazan (Казань; Tatar: Qazan) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye
17 TY Tyva (Тыва) Kyzyl (Кызыл) Siberian West Siberia
18 UD Udmurtia (Удмуртская) Izhevsk (Ижевск) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals
19 KK Khakassia (Хакасия) Abakan (Абакан) Siberian West Siberia
20 CE Chechnya (Чеченская) Grozny (Грозный) Southern North Caucasus
21 CU Chuvashia (Чувашская (Чаваш)) Cheboksary (Чебоксары) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka
Territories - края - kraya
22 ALT Altai Krai (Алтайский) Barnaul (Барнаул) Siberian West Siberia
23 KDA Krasnodar (Краснодарский) Krasnodar (Краснодар) Southern North Caucasus
24 KYA Krasnoyarsk (Красноярский) Krasnoyarsk (Красноярск) Siberian East Siberia
25 PRI Primorsky (Приморский) Vladivostok (Владивосток) Far Eastern Far East
26 STA Stavropol (Ставропольский) Stavropol (Ставрополь) Southern North Caucasus
27 KHA Khabarovsk (Хабаровский) Khabarovsk (Хабаровск) Far Eastern Far East
Provinces - области - oblasti
28 AMU Amur (Амурская) Blagoveshchensk (Благовещенск) Far Eastern Far East
29 ARK Arkhangelsk (Архангельская) Arkhangelsk (Архангельск) Northwestern North
30 AST Astrakhan (Астраханская) Astrakhan (Астрахань) Southern Povolzhye
31 BEL Belgorod (Белгородская) Belgorod (Белгород) Central Central-Chernozem
32 BRY Bryansk (Брянская) Bryansk (Брянск) Central Central
33 VLA Vladimir (Владимирская) Vladimir (Владимир) Central Central
34 VGG Volgograd (Волгоградская) Volgograd (Волгоград) Southern Povolzhye
35 VLG Vologda (Вологодская) Vologda (Вологда) Northwestern North
36 VOR Voronezh (Воронежская) Voronezh (Воронеж) Central Central-Chernozem
37 IVA Ivanovo (Ивановская) Ivanovo (Иваново) Central Central
38 IRK Irkutsk (Иркутская) Irkutsk (Иркутск) Siberian East Siberia
39 KGD Kaliningrad (Калининградская) Kaliningrad (Калининград) Northwestern Northwest
40 KLU Kaluga (Калужская) Kaluga (Калуга) Central Central
41 KAM Kamchatka (Камчатская) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропавловск-Камчатский) Far Eastern Far East
42 KEM Kemerovo (Кемеровская) Kemerovo (Кемерово) Siberian West Siberia
43 KIR Kirov (Кировская) Kirov (Киров) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka
44 KOS Kostroma (Костромская) Kostroma (Кострома) Central Central
45 KGN Kurgan (Курганская) Kurgan (Курган) Urals Urals
46 KRS Kursk (Курская) Kursk (Курск) Central Central-Chernozem
47 LEN Leningrad (Ленинградская) St. Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) Northwestern Northwest
48 LIP Lipetsk (Липецкая) Lipetsk (Липецк) Central Central-Chernozem
49 MAG Magadan (Магаданская) Magadan (Магадан) Far Eastern Far East
50 MOS Moscow (Московская) Moscow (Москва) Central Central
51 MUR Murmansk (Мурманская) Murmansk (Мурманск) Northwestern North
52 NIZ Nizhny Novgorod (Нижегородская) Nizhny Novgorod (Нижний Новгород) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka
53 NGR Novgorod (Новгородская) Novgorod (Новгород) Northwestern Northwest
54 NVS Novosibirsk (Новосибирская) Novosibirsk (Новосибирск) Siberian West Siberia
55 OMS Omsk (Омская) Omsk (Омск) Siberian West Siberia
56 ORE Orenburg (Оренбургская) Orenburg (Оренбург) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals
57 ORL Oryol (Орловская) Oryol (Орёл) Central Central
58 PNZ Penza (Пензенская) Penza (Пенза) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye
59 PER Perm (Пермская) Perm (Пермь) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals
60 PSK Pskov (Псковская) Pskov (Псков) Northwestern Northwest
61 ROS Rostov (Ростовская) Rostov-na-Donu (Ростов) Southern North Caucasus
62 RYA Ryazan (Рязанская) Ryazan (Рязань) Central Central
63 SAM Samara (Самарская) Samara, Russia (Самара) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye
64 SAR Saratov (Саратовская) Saratov (Саратов) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye
65 SAK Sakhalin (Сахалинская) Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Южно-Сахалинск) Far Eastern Far East
66 SVE Sverdlovsk (Свердловская) Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбург) Urals Urals
67 SMO Smolensk (Смоленская) Smolensk (Смоленск) Central Central
68 TAM Tambov (Тамбовская) Tambov (Тамбов) Central Central-Chernozem
69 TVE Tver (Тверская) Tver (Тверь) Central Central
70 TOM Tomsk (Томская) Tomsk (Томск) Siberian West Siberia
71 TUL Tula (Тульская) Tula (Тула) Central Central
72 TYU Tyumen (Тюменская) Tyumen (Тюмень) Urals West Siberia
73 ULY Ulyanovsk (Ульяновская) Ulyanovsk (Ульяновск) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye
74 CHE Chelyabinsk (Челябинская) Chelyabinsk (Челябинск) Urals Urals
75 CHI Chita (Читинская) Chita (Чита) Siberian East Siberia
76 YAR Yaroslavl (Ярославская) Yaroslavl (Ярославль) Central Central
Federal cities - федеральные города - federalnyye goroda
77 MOW Moscow (Москва) Central Central
78 SPE St. Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) Northwestern Northwest
Autonomous oblast - автономная область - avtonomnaya oblast
79 YEV Jewish (Еврейская) Birobidzhan (Биробиджан) Far Eastern Far East
Autonomous districts - автономные округа - avtonomnyye okruga
80 AGB Aga Buryatia (Агинский-Бурятский) Aginskoye (Агинское) Siberian East Siberia
81 KOP Permyakia (Коми-Пермяцкий) Kudymkar (Кудымкар) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals
82 KOR Koryakia (Корякский) Palana (Палана) Far Eastern Far East
83 NEN Nenetsia (Ненецкий) Naryan-Mar (Нарьян-Мар) Northwestern North
84 TAY Taymyria (Таймырский (Долгано-Ненецкий)) Dudinka (Дудинка) Siberian East Siberia
85 UOB Ust-Orda Buryatia (Усть-Ордынский Бурятский) Ust-Ordynsky (Усть-Ордынский) Siberian East Siberia
86 KHM Khantia-Mansia (Ханты-Мансийский) Khanty-Mansiysk (Ханты-Мансийск) Urals West Siberia
87 CHU Chukotka (Чукотский) Anadyr (Анадырь) Far Eastern Far East
88 EVE Evenkia (Эвенкийский) Tura (Тура) Siberian East Siberia
89 YAN Yamalia (Ямало-Ненецкий) Salekhard (Салехард) Urals West Siberia

Recent developments

On April 17, 2005, a regional referendum was held to decide whether Evenkia and Taymyria should be merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai. According to the results of the referendum, the merger will take place on January 1, 2007.

Related articles

Template:Federal subjects of Russiabg:Административно деление на Русия cs:Subjekty Ruské federace de:Verwaltungsgliederung Russlands et:Venemaa haldusjaotus es:Organizacin poltico-administrativa de Rusia fr:Sujets fdraux de Russie ja:ロシア連邦の地方区分 nl:Deelgebieden van Rusland pl:Podział terytorialny Rosji ru:Список субъектов Российской Федерации


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