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Exile

From Academic Kids

See Exile (disambiguation) for other meanings.

Exile is a form of punishment. It means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state or country) while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return.

It is common to distinguish between internal exile, i.e., forced resettlement within the country of residence, and external exile, deportation outside the country of residence.

Contents

History

Exile has a long tradition as a form of punishment. It has been known in Ancient Rome, where the Roman Senate had the power to exile individuals, entire families or countries (which amounted to a declaration of war).

In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth a court of law could sentence a noble to exile (banicja). As long as the exile (banita) remained in the Commonwealth he had a price on his head and anybody who killed him could expect a monetary reward from the state (usually a starosta of given region). Special forms of exile were accompanied by wyświecenie (a declaration in Church) or by issuance of a separate declaration to townfolk and peasantry. A lesser form of exile was infamy (infamia). A noble who has been infamed lost the protection of the law although there was no reward for his death (but neither was there any penalty). In additon, an infamed noble who killed an exiled one could expect his infamy to be revoked. Both exile and infamy could be revoked if the person had done a great service to the state. One of the most famous exiles of the Commonwealth was Samuel Łaszcz.

Personal exile

Exile was used particularly for political opponents of those in power. The use of exile for political purposes can sometimes be useful for the government because it prevents the exilee from organizing in their native land or from becoming a martyr.

Exile represented a severe punishment, particularly for those, like Ovid or Du Fu, exiled to strange or backward regions, cut off from all of the possibilities of life as well as their families and associates. Dante describes the pain of exile in the Divine Comedy:

«. . . Tu lascerai ogne cosa diletta
più caramente; e questo è quello strale
che l'arco de lo essilio pria saetta.
Tu proverai sì come sa di sale
lo pane altrui, e come è duro calle
lo scendere e 'l salir per l'altrui scale . . .»
". . . You will leave everything you love most:
this is the arrow that the bow of exile
shoots first. You will know how salty
another's bread tastes and how hard it
is to ascend and descend
another's stairs . . ."
Paradiso XVII: 55-60

Exile has been softened, to some extent, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as exiles have received welcome in other countries and have either created new communities within those countries or, less frequently, returned to their homelands following the demise of the regime that exiled them.

Government in exile

Main article: Government in exile

During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'etat, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.

Nation in exile

Main article: Diaspora

When large groups, or occasionally a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or Diaspora. Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon in 597 BC and again in the years following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in the year AD 70.

After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, and following the uprisings (like Kosciuszko Uprising, Novermber Uprising and January Uprising) against the partitioning powers (Russian Empire, Prussia and Austro-Hungary), many Poles have chosen - or be forced - into exile, forming large diasporsas (known as Polonia), especially in France and United States.

The entire population of Crimean Tatars (200,000) that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations.

At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Ilois resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK.

Tax exile

Main article: tax haven

A wealthy citizen who departs from a former abode for a lower tax jurisdiction in order to reduce his/her tax burden is termed a tax exile.

Famous people who have been in exile

A selection of some of the famous exiles, listed alpabetically by last name:

See also

da:Eksil de:Exil it:Esilio pl:banicja ro:Exil sv:Exil

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