Turing Award

The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field. Most of the recipients have been computer scientists.
The award is named after Alan Mathison Turing (19121954), a British mathematician considered to be one of the fathers of modern computer science.
The Turing Award is often recognized as the "Nobel Prize of computing". It is sponsored by Intel Corporation and currently is accompanied by a prize of $100,000.
The award recipients, and the field in which they earned the recognition are listed below. Refer to the individual recipients for more detailed information on their achievements.
Contents 
Nationality
Most of Turing Award recepients are Americans. Here is the national distribution of Turing Award recepients from 1966 to 2004.
 USA: 35
 United Kingdom: 5
 Israel: 3
 Canada: 2
 Norway: 2
 Netherlands: 1
 Switzerland: 1
Turing Award recipients
Year  Name(s)  Citation 

1966  Alan J. Perlis  For his influence in the area of advanced programming techniques and compiler construction 
1967  Maurice V. Wilkes  Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced 
1968  Richard Hamming  For his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and errordetecting and errorcorrecting codes 
1969  Marvin Minsky  artificial intelligence 
1970  James H. Wilkinson  For his research in numerical analysis to facilitiate the use of the highspeed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis 
1971  John McCarthy  Dr. McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intellegence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work 
1972  Edsger Dijkstra  Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950's to the development of the ALGOL, a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal exponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages 
1973  Charles W. Bachman  For his outstanding contributions to database technology 
1974  Donald E. Knuth  For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to the "art of computer programming" through his wellknown books in a continuous series by this title 
1975  Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon  In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequentially with numerous faculty and student collegues at CarnegieMellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing 
1976  Michael O. Rabin and Dana S. Scott  For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field 
1977  John Backus  For profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical highlevel programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages 
1978  Robert W. Floyd  For having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms 
1979  Kenneth E. Iverson  For his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice 
1980  C. Antony R. Hoare  For his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages 
1981  Edgar F. Codd  database management systems, esp. relational databases 
1982  Stephen A. Cook  complexity of computation 
1983  Ken Thompson and Dennis M. Ritchie  generic operating systems theory, implementation of UNIX operating system 
1984  Niklaus Wirth  computer language development 
1985  Richard M. Karp  theory of algorithms esp. the theory of NPcompleteness 
1986  John Hopcroft and Robert Tarjan  design and analysis of algorithms and data structures 
1987  John Cocke  theory of compilers, architecture of large systems, development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC) 
1988  Ivan Sutherland  computer graphics 
1989  William (Velvel) Kahan  numerical analysis 
1990  Fernando J. Corbató  CTSS and Multics 
1991  Robin Milner  LCF, ML, CCS 
1992  Butler W. Lampson  distributed, personal computing environments 
1993  Juris Hartmanis and Richard E. Stearns  computational complexity theory 
1994  Edward Feigenbaum and Raj Reddy  large scale artificial intelligence systems 
1995  Manuel Blum  computational complexity theory, its application to cryptography and program checking 
1996  Amir Pnueli  temporal logic, program and systems verification 
1997  Douglas Engelbart  interactive computing 
1998  James Gray  database and transaction processing 
1999  Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.  computer architecture, operating systems, software engineering 
2000  Andrew ChiChih Yao  theory of computation incl. pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity 
2001  OleJohan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard  object oriented programming 
2002  Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard M. Adleman  public key cryptography 
2003  Alan Kay  object oriented programming 
2004  Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn  TCP/IP Protocol 
See also
External link
 A.M. Turing Award website (http://www.acm.org/awards/taward.html)cs:Turingova cena
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