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The Beatles

From Academic Kids

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The Beatles (L-R, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr, John Lennon), in 1964, performing on The Ed Sullivan Show during their first United States tour, promoting their first U.S. hit song, "I Want To Hold Your Hand." and ushering in the "British Invasion" of American popular music.

The Beatles were the most influential, groundbreaking and successful popular music group of the rock era. No artists of any sort, with the arguable exception of Elvis Presley, have achieved the Beatles' combination of popular success, critical acclaim and broad cultural influence.

The Beatles were John Lennon (lead singer/rhythm guitar/keyboards), Paul McCartney (lead singer/bass/piano/guitars), George Harrison (lead guitar/sitar), and Ringo Starr (drums), all from Liverpool, Merseyside, in England. Although Lennon and McCartney were initially the principal songwriters, Harrison and Starr made significant contributions as the band matured. George Martin produced almost all of the Beatles' recordings.

The Beatles created a sensation in late 1963 in the UK (the phenomenon was dubbed "Beatlemania" by the British press), notable for the hordes of screaming and swooning young women the group inspired. Beatlemania came to North America in early 1964, and the band's popularity extended across much of the world. Within the space of five years, their music progressed from the apparent simplicity of their early hits (such as "She Loves You" and "I Want to Hold Your Hand") to artistically ambitious suites of songs (such as the albums Revolver, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and Abbey Road). By writing their own songs, exploring the possibilities of the recording studio and striving for unprecedented quality in every recording they released, the Beatles had far reaching effects on popular music. The band made feature films that were the subject of unprecedented press scrutiny, and became symbolic leaders of the international youth counterculture of the 1960s, publicly exploring Eastern mysticism, psychedelic drugs and revolutionary politics. The group disbanded in 1970.

Contents

History

Rhythm Guitarist  was known for his political activism, as well as his love for guitar-based rock and roll.
Rhythm Guitarist John Lennon was known for his political activism, as well as his love for guitar-based rock and roll.

Main article: History of the Beatles


John Lennon formed a skiffle group, The Quarry Men, in March 1957. On July 6 that year, he met Paul McCartney whilst playing at the Woolton Parish fete and the two were soon playing music together. In 1958 the young guitarist George Harrison joined the group, which played under a variety of names. In 1960 they traveled to Hamburg (particularly the infamous "Kaiser Keller" club) where they finally became the Beatles. Stuart Sutcliffe was part of the group in 1960-61 and influenced their appearance and sense of style. Allan Williams was their manager until 1962 when Brian Epstein took over the role.

In 1962, after having been rejected by every other record company in England, they joined EMI's Parlophone label. Their drummer for the past two years, Pete Best, was jettisoned in favor of the more experienced Ringo Starr.

Their first sessions in November 1962 produced a minor hit, Love Me Do, which likely charted partly because Epstein ordered a large quantity of the singles from EMI for his family's record stores. This was quickly followed by the recording of their first album, With the Beatles, a mix of original songs by Lennon and McCartney along with some covers.

Beatlemania began in Britain on 13 October 1963 with a televised appearance at the London Palladium. Although the band was experiencing great popularity on the record charts in England by early 1963, Parlaphone's American counterpart, Capitol Records (which was owned by EMI), refused to issue the singles Love Me Do, Please, Please Me and From Me To You in the United States, the reason being that no British act had ever made any impact on an American audience.

VeeJay Records, a small Chicago label, is said to have been pressured into issuing these singles as part of a deal for the rights to another performer's masters. Art Roberts, music director of Chicago powerhouse radio station WLS, placed Please, Please Me into rotation in late February 1963, making it the first and last time a Beatles' record was heard on American radio until December 1963 (it lasted a few weeks at the bottom of the charts this first time around). Veejay issued a corresponding album that summer in America, which also went nowhere.

In August 1963 the Swan label (partly owned by Dick Clark) tried again with the Beatles' She Loves You, which again failed to receive airplay. A testing of the song on his TV show American Bandstand resulted in laughter and scorn from American teenagers when they saw the group's unusual haircuts. Meanwhile, it is said that British airline stewardesses and others were bringing single copies of Beatles records into major US cities like New York, Chicago and Los Angeles to share with friends. In December 1963, during the weeks immediately following the Kennedy assassination, their music began slowly filling the American airwaves.

Beatlemania exploded in the United States with three national television appearances by the Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show on 9 February, 16 February and 23 February,1964. The pop-music band became a worldwide phenomenon with worshipful fans and angry denunciations by cultural observers and established performers such as Frank Sinatra, sometimes on grounds of the music (which was thought crude and unmusical) or their appearance (their hair was scandalously long)

Some commentators have speculated that after the assassination of John F. Kennedy a depressed America was searching for a way out of gloom and despair. So in effect, the Beatles were in the right place at the right time (with a unique combination of talent and stage presence) to provide an enthusiastic jolt to a saddened nation.

In 1964 they held the top five places on Billboard's Hot 100, a feat that has never been repeated.

In 1965 they were instated as Members of the Order of the British Empire. Lennon and Harrison began experimenting with LSD that year and McCartney would do likewise near the end of 1966. In July 1966 Lennon caused a backlash against The Beatles when he claimed during an interview that Christianity was dying, quipping that the Beatles were "more popular than Jesus." Eventually he apologized at a Chicago press conference, acquiescing to objections by many religious groups including the Holy See as Beatles' records were banned or burned across the American South along with threats from groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.

The Beatles performed their last concert before paying fans in Candlestick Park in San Francisco on 29 August, 1966. From this time until the group dissolved in early 1970 The Beatles concentrated on making some of the most remarkable recorded pop music of the 20th century. The group's compositions and musical experiments raised their artistic reputations while they retained their tremendous popularity. The Beatles' financial fortunes took a turn for the worse, however, when their manager, Brian Epstein, died in 1967 and the band's affairs began to unravel. The members began to drift apart. Their final live performance was on the roof at the Apple studios in London in January 1969 during the "Get Back" sessions and was featured both on the "Let It Be" album and the "Let It Be" film. In 1969 , largely due to McCartney's efforts, they recorded their final album, Abbey Road. The band officially broke up in 1970, and any hopes of a reunion were crushed when Lennon was assassinated in 1980. However, a virtual reunion occurred in 1995 with the release of two original Lennon recordings which had the additional contributions of the remaining Beatles mixed in to create two hit singles: "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love". Three albums of unreleased material and studio outtakes were also released, as well as a documentary and television miniseries, in a project known as The Beatles Anthology.

Studio style evolution

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Bassist Paul McCartney was primarily known for ballads such as "Yesterday", although he also composed rockers such as "Helter Skelter".

Many observers have noted that understanding the success of The Beatles and their music begins and ends with an appreciation for the diverse ways in which they (especially Lennon and McCartney) blended their voices as instruments.

The role of producer George Martin is often cited as a crucial element in the success of the Beatles. He used his experience to bring out the potential in the group, recognizing and nurturing their creativity rather than imposing his views. His earlier production experience ranged through acts such as Jimmy Shand to the Goons, which is said to have prepared him for the open-minded, sometimes experimental studio approach the group developed as they became more experienced. Martin's connection with the Goons impressed the Beatles, who were fans. He later said he was initially attracted to the group because they were "very charming people."

At the height of their fame, bolstered by the two films Help! and A Hard Day's Night, the band stopped touring in 1966. Performing for thousands of screaming fans who typically made so much noise the music could not be heard had led to disillusionment and they decided to concentrate on making records. Their demands to create new sounds with every recording, personal experiments with psychedelic drugs and the studio techniques of recording engineer Geoff Emerick influenced the albums Revolver (1966) and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), still widely regarded as two of the best albums ever made. Along with studio tricks such as sound processing, unconventional microphone placements and vari-speed recording the Beatles used instruments considered unconventional for pop music at the time, including bowed string and brass elements, Indian instruments like the sitar, tape loops and early electronic instruments.

The group gradually took charge of their own production and Paul McCartney's growing dominance in this role, especially after the death of Brian Epstein, played a part in the eventual split of the group.

Their unprecedented fame caused its own stresses and the band was already on the verge of splitting up when The Beatles ("The White Album") was released in late 1968. Some songs were recorded by the band members as individual projects with other invited musicians and Starr took a two-week holiday (sometimes reported as a temporary break-up) midway through the sessions. By 1970 the band had split and each Beatle went on to solo careers with varying degrees of success.

In film

Drummer  did not compose many songs for the Beatles but customarily sang one song on each album.
Drummer Ringo Starr did not compose many songs for the Beatles but customarily sang one song on each album.

The Beatles had a limited but largely successful film career beginning with A Hard Day's Night (1964), a loosely scripted comic farce (often compared to the Marx Brothers) focusing on their hectic touring lifestyle and directed in a black-and-white documentary style by an up-and-coming Richard Lester who was then known for directing the television version of the Goon Show. In 1965 came Help!, a Technicolor extravaganza shot in exotic locations with the style of a James Bond spoof. Magical Mystery Tour (a McCartney idea adapted from Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters LSD-oriented bus tour of the UK), was critically slammed when it aired on British television in 1967 but is now considered a cult classic.

The animated Yellow Submarine followed in 1968 but had little input from the Beatles themselves save for a live-action epilogue and the contribution of four new songs (including one holdover from the Sgt. Pepper sessions, "Only A Northern Song"). Nonetheless it was acclaimed for its boldly innovative graphic style and clever humor along with the soundtrack. The Beatles are said to have been pleased with the result and attended its highly publicized London premiere.

Let it Be was an ill-fated documentary of the band in terminal decline, shot over an extended period in 1969. The music from this formed an album of the same name. Although recorded before Abbey Road, after contractual disputes along with significant and controversial tinkering by producer Phil Spector, this was their final release.


Music

Lead Guitarist  truly emerged as a composer in his own right on , the Beatles' last album to be produced.
Lead Guitarist George Harrison truly emerged as a composer in his own right on Abbey Road, the Beatles' last album to be produced.

Unlike their contemporaries the Rolling Stones, the Beatles were seldom directly influenced by the blues. Drawing inspiration from an eclectic variety of sources, their home idiom was closer to pop music (during their early fame they were sometimes referred to as a mod band, a label they seem to have resisted). The Beatles' distinctive vocal harmonies have some similarities to those of early Motown artists in America. Chuck Berry was perhaps the most fundamental progenitor of the Beatles' sound. They recorded covers of "Roll Over Beethoven" and "Rock And Roll Music" early on and many other Berry classics were in their live repertoire. Chuck Berry's influence is also heard (in altered form) on later recordings such as "Everybody's Got Something to Hide Except Me And My Monkey" (1968) and "Come Together" (1969) (when "Come Together" was released, the owner of Chuck Berry's copyrights sued John Lennon for copyright infringement of his song "You Can't Catch Me", after which the two reached an amicable settlement, the terms of which included an agreement that Lennon cover some Chuck Berry songs as a solo artist).

Elvis Presley's influence on the band ([1] (http://www.iol.ie/~beatlesireland/zBeatlesfactfiles/factfilesx2/Associatedwiththebeatles/ElvisPresley.htm)) is a matter of debate. Paul was quoted in an interview as saying Elvis was the reason he picked up the guitar. John was also said to have loved Presley's music. However the Beatles sounded radically different from Elvis and little of his repetoire can be found in their catalog. Others argue that because Elvis had such a major impact on the music of their time, there must have been some influence. The group did pay a special (and some say awkward) call on Elvis at his Hollywood apartment in 1965.

The Beatles were fond of Little Richard and some of their songs (especially their early work) featured falsetto calls similar to his, notably "Long Tall Sally". In 1962 he socialized with the Beatles around Hamburg and they performed together at the Star Club. Long Tall Sally was a permanent fixture in their concert performances and McCartney's effort on the album version is widely regarded as among his best rock and roll vocal recordings.

McCartney's songwriting was influenced by Brian Wilson of The Beach Boys, who was in turn spurred on by the Beatles' work. Wilson acknowledged that the American version of Rubber Soul challenged him to make Pet Sounds, an album which then inspired McCartney's vision of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The song "Back in the USSR" was based on a suggestion by Mike Love to McCartney and contains overt allusions to the Beach Boys' "California Girls".

The Everly Brothers were another influence. Lennon and McCartney consciously copied Don and Phil Everly's distinctive two-part harmonies. Their vocals on two 1962 recordings, "Love Me Do" and "Please Please Me" were inspired by the Everlys' powerful vocal innovation on "Cathy's Clown" (1960), the first recording to ever reach number one simultaneously in the USA and in England. "Two of Us", the opening track on Let It Be is overtly composed in the Everly style and McCartney acknowledges this in the recording with a spoken "Take it Phil."

The song-writing of Gerry Goffin and Carole King was yet another influence. Some say that one of the Beatles' many achievements was to marry the relative sophistication of Goffin and King's songs (which used major-seventh chords, for example) with the straightforwardness of Buddy Holly, Berry and the early rock-and-roll performers. Lennon and McCartney's goal when they first began writing together was to become "the next Goffin and King."

John Lennon's early style has clear relationships to Buddy Holly and Roy Orbison ("Misery" from 1963 and "Please Please Me" from 1963). "That'll Be the Day" was the first song Lennon learned to play and sing accurately and the first song the proto-Beatles ever put to vinyl. McCartney admitted, "At least the first forty songs we wrote were Buddy Holly influenced." Lennon said that Holly "made it okay to wear glasses. I WAS Buddy Holly." The naming of the Beatles (originally the Silver Beatles) was of course, Lennon's way of paying tribute to Buddy Holly's band, The Crickets. The Beatles covered Holly's "Words of Love" on their album Beatles for Sale.

After hearing the work of Bob Dylan Lennon was heavily influenced by folk music ("You've Got To Hide Your Love Away" and "Norwegian Wood" from 1965). Lennon also played the major role in steering the Beatles towards psychedelia ("Strawberry Fields Forever" Tomorrow Never Knows and "I Am the Walrus" from 1967) and then renewed his interest in earlier, "good old rock and roll" forms at the close of the Beatles' career ("Don't Let Me Down" from 1969).

Paul McCartney is perhaps best known as the group's romantic balladeer. Beginning with "Yesterday" (1965), he pioneered a modern form of art song, exemplified by "Eleanor Rigby" (1966), "Here There and Everywhere" (1966 and "She's Leaving Home" (1967). Meanwhile McCartney kept his affection for the driving R&B of Little Richard in a series of songs John Lennon dubbed "potboilers", from "I Saw Her Standing There" (1963) to "Lady Madonna" (1968). "Helter Skelter" (1968), arguably an early heavy metal song, is a McCartney composition.

Originally, The Beatles' work focused around themes of optimistic, giddy, love akin to that of a boy who had just fallen in love, as typified by their performances of songs on The Ed Sullivan Show, such as "All My Loving", "" and "".
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Originally, The Beatles' work focused around themes of optimistic, giddy, love akin to that of a boy who had just fallen in love, as typified by their performances of songs on The Ed Sullivan Show, such as "All My Loving", "She Loves You" and "I Want To Hold Your Hand".

George Harrison derived his early guitar style from 1950s rockabilly figures such as Carl Perkins, Scotty Moore (who worked with Elvis Presley) and Duane Eddy. "All My Loving" (1963) and "She's A Woman" (1964) are prime examples of Harrison's early rockabilly guitar work.

In 1965 Harrison broke new ground in the West by recording on "Norwegian Wood" with an Indian sitar. His long collaboration with Sri Ravi Shankar, a famous Hindustani musician, influenced many of his compositions, some of which were based on Hindustani forms (most notably "Love You To" (1966), "Within You, Without You" (1967), and "The Inner Light" (1968)). Indian music and culture also influenced Lennon and McCartney, with the use of swirling tape loops, droning bass lines and mantra-like vocals on "Tomorrow Never Knows" (1966) and "Dear Prudence" (1968).

Harrison retained Western musical forms in his later compositions, emerging as a significant pop composer in his own right, although occasionally reprising major themes indicating his relationship with Hindustani music and the Hindu god Krishna. His later guitar style, while not displaying the virtuosity of Jimi Hendrix or Eric Clapton, was distinctive with its use of clear melodic lines and subtle fills ("Something" [1969], "Let It Be" [1970]) and contrsted with the increasingly distorted riffs and rapid-fire guitar solo work of his contemporaries.

Ringo Starr rarely wrote songs but he is often noted for his gentle comic baritone ("Yellow Submarine" 1966, "Octopus's Garden" 1969), steady drumming and everyman image. Starr was likely responsible for the group's occasional interest in surprisingly authentic country sounds ("What Goes On" 1965 and "Don't Pass Me By" 1968 with Lennon) along with his own performance on Buck Owens' "Act Naturally".

Later Beatles material shifted away from dance music and the pace of the songs is often more moderate, with interest tending to come from melody and harmonic texture rather than the rhythm ("Penny Lane" from 1967 is an example). Throughout their career the Beatles' songs were rarely riff (or ostinato)-driven. "Day Tripper" (1965) and "Hey Bulldog" (1969, recorded 1968) are among the notable exceptions.

The decision to stop touring in 1966 caused an abrupt change in direction. Reportedly stung by criticism of "Paperback Writer", the Beatles poured their creative energies into the recording studio, making a determined attempt to produce material they could be proud of. They had already shown a clear trend towards progressively greater complexity in technique and style but this accelerated noticeably in "Revolver". The subject matter of the post-touring songs was no longer you, I, love, boy meets girl and so on, taking them far from the days in 1963 and similarities with bands such as The Hollies. All manner of subjects were introduced, from home repair and circuses to nonsense songs and others defying description.

The extreme complexity of Sgt. Pepper's reached its height on the Yellow Submarine soundtrack album, parts of which (for example "It's All Too Much" and "Only A Northern Song") were left over from 1967 and were apparently used because the Beatles themselves weren't much interested in the animated film as a project and weren't inclined to exerting themselves by producing much new material for it.

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The iconic Abbey Road album cover.

After the Revolver/Sgt. Pepper's phase the creative surge seemed to exhaust itself and their self-titled double album, largely written in India, reverted to a much simpler style and sometimes simpler subjects (for example "Birthday"). Some of it (for example "Why Don't We Do It In The Road" and "Wild Honey Pie") was far less complex than their material of just a year or two before. In 1969 the band began its disintegration during sessions for the abortive Get Back project (which eventually emerged in 1970, much altered, as Let It Be). This had been intended as a return to more basic songs and an avoidance of thorough editing or otherwise "artificial" influences on the final output. Ironically Let It Be was heavily overdubbed and edited by producer Phil Spector in his wall of sound technique). With (what they thought of as) the disaster of Get Back looming behind them, George Martin was asked to produce the last album the Beatles recorded, Abbey Road, representing a mature attempt to integrate what they knew and use recording studio techniques to improve the songs rather than experiment to see what happened. It represented a final effort, as McCartney once put it, to "leave 'em laughing."

Beatle music is still performed in public by tribute bands such as the Bootleg Beatles, and shows like Beatlemania!. They were the basis for Eric Idle's parody band, The Rutles (1978).

For many, the group's musical appeal lay in the interaction of John and Paul's voices and musical styles. It is said they not only supplied missing bits and pieces for each other's songs, but shared a competitive edge that brought out the best in them both. George's lead guitar and vocals along with Ringo's understated but faithful drumming contributed their own chemistry. Finally, their stage presence and charm as a group kindled their live shows (not to mention relationships with key people in their careers). After the group dissolved many critics cited inconsistencies in each of their solo releases as a demonstrtion of how important this group collaboration had been: Together they sparked each other to reach heights rarely attained on the later solo releases.

Members of group as instrumentalists and composers

Most fans know Paul played bass, John rhythm guitar, George lead guitar and Ringo drums. But all the Beatles had some proficiency on the piano and each used it to compose songs, which contributed to the exceptional breadth of the Beatles music catalog.

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Paul learned to play piano as a young boy but never learned to read music. Although he is known primarily as a bass player, McCartney experimented with almost every instrument, including Moog and Mellotron synthesizers. His mastery of the piano as a compositional instrument is said to have empowered him as a composer (perhaps something only fellow pianists can begin to appreciate). George Martin and John Lennon commented that McCartney was the most technically proficient guitarist and drummer in the band. For example, he played lead guitar on "Taxman" and "Ticket to Ride", drums on "The Ballad of John and Yoko" and "Back in the USSR" and piano on "Hey Jude" and "Let it Be". "Michelle" was performed entirely by Paul.

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Given his widely acknowledged expertise and inventiveness as a songwriter, John was less proficient playing rhythmic instruments such as drums or bass. For example, during the song "Another Girl" in the movie Help! he appears to play the drums uneasily and out of rhythm (the Beatles all switch their instruments during this clip). John also played bass in "Back in the USSR", "Hey Jude" and "The Long and Winding Road" in which, if one listens closely, a few technical mistakes can be heard. The other Beatles admitted to teasing Lennon about his timekeeping. When the remaining Beatles reunited in the mid 90s to record some of Lennon's unreleased demo tracks, producer Jeff Lynne used studio technology to compensate for Lennon's flexible sense of tempo (ironically, since his wonted instrumental role in the Beatles is usually characterized as rhythm guitar).

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George was known for excelling when playing melodic lines, riffs and fills on guitar-like string instruments ('One of the greats', in McCartney's words). In addition to lead guitars and sitars, Harrison played bass on "Taxman" and "Two of Us". His usual allotment of one composition per album, however, is said to have contributed to the tensions surrounding the band's breakup.

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Though Ringo reportedly admits his musical knowledge beyond percussion is limited, he composed some songs on piano, including "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden". Ringo claimed to have contributed the famous line 'Father Mackenzie, wiping the dirt from his hands as walks from the grave' to "Eleanor Rigby", which was ostensibly written by McCartney. A line confirmed as his is, 'Look at him working, darning his socks in the night when there's nobody there.' Starr was also responsible for a number of song titles, inspired by his malapropisms of homespun Liverpudlian sayings. Some notables include "A Hard Day's Night", "Eight Days a Week" and "Tomorrow Never Knows". Critical appreciation of his steady, supportive drumming has increased through the decades. He is said to have recorded the drums on many Beatles recordings in a single take.

Their producer George Martin influenced many songs, performed in several and composed a few fragments. "Hello, Goodbye" is said to have developed from an improvised piano duet by McCartney and Martin. The orchestra parts heard in some Beatles recordings were mostly composed or arranged by Martin.

Discography

For a detailed discography, see: The Beatles discography

Catalogue

In 1963 the Beatles gave their publishing rights to Northern Songs, a company created by Brian Epstein and music publisher Dick James. Northern Songs went public in 1965 and Lennon and McCartney each held 15% of the company's shares while Dick James and the company's chairman, Charles Silver held a controlling 37.5%. In 1969 James and Silver sold Northern Songs to a British TV company named Associated Television Corporation (ATV).

In 1985 ATV's music catalogue was sold off and Michael Jackson paid a reported $47 million (beating Paul McCartney's bid) to buy the publishing rights to over 200 Beatles songs. A decade later Jackson and Sony merged their music publishing businesses. Since 1995, Jackson and Sony/ATV Music Publishing have jointly owned most of the Beatles' songs.

While the Jackson-Sony catalog includes practically all of the Beatles' greatest hits, a few of the early songs weren't included in the original ATV deal. Accordingly, Paul McCartney later succeeded in acquiring the rights to "Love Me Do," "Please, Please Me," "P.S. I Love You," and "Ask Me Why". Sony reported Jackson used his half of his Beatles' catalogue as collateral for a loan from the music company. However, Lennon's estate and McCartney still receive songwriter royalties.

George Harrison created his own company, Harrisongs, which owns the rights to his classics such as "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" and "Something."

Trivia

  • Ringo Starr, Paul McCartney (and his wife Linda), and George Harrison all guest starred on The Simpsons although not at the same time. This makes The Simpsons the only non-variety show to feature all the surviving Beatles when recorded.
  • George Harrison cooperated with Eric Idle and Neil Innes in writing and filming (for television) the fictitious story of the Rutles, a "Rutlandbeat" group affectionately satirising the Beatles. Innes parodied particular Beatles songs with lyrics and titles (e.g. "Ouch!") only marginally less believable than those of the Fab Four.
  • The song Octopus's Garden was composed by Ringo during one of his dido strikes. Bored by recording, he went to sea. When he returned the others welcomed him enthusiastically and recorded their friend's new song.

Song samples

1963 songs

I Want to Hold Your Hand

1965 songs

Help!, Yesterday, Drive My Car, Norwegian Wood, Nowhere Man, In My Life

1966 songs

Taxman, Eleanor Rigby, I'm Only Sleeping, Got to Get You Into My Life

1967 songs

Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, When I'm Sixty-Four, A Day in the Life, Magical Mystery Tour, I Am the Walrus, Strawberry Fields Forever, Penny Lane

1968 songs

Blackbird, Mother Nature's Son, Helter Skelter, Revolution 1

1969 songs

Come Together, Something, Here Comes the Sun, She Came in Through the Bathroom Window, The End (drum solo)

Related topics

References

  • beatles-discography.com (various pages). Retrieved Dec. 15, 2004.
  • Braun, Michael (1964), Love Me Do: The Beatles' Progress. London: Penguin Books, 1995 [Reprint]. ISBN 0140022783.
  • Carr, Roy & Tyler, Tony (1975). The Beatles: An Illustrated Record. Harmony Books. ISBN 0517520451.
  • Davies, Hunter (1985). The Beatles (Second Revised Edition). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070155267.
  • Goldsmith, Martin (2004). The Beatles Come To America. Turning Points. ISBN 0471469645.
  • Lewisohn, Mark (1990). EMI's the Complete Beatles Recording Sessions: The Official Story of the Abbey Road Years. Hamlyn. ISBN 0681031891.
  • MacDonald, Ian (1995). Revolution In The Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties. Vintage. ISBN 0712666974.
  • Norman, Philip (1997). Shout: The Beatles in Their Generation. MJF Books. ISBN 1567310877.
  • Schaffner, Nicholas (1977). The Beatles Forever. Cameron House. ISBN 0811702251.

See also

External links

  John Lennon Missing image
Jk_beatles_paul.jpg
Paul McCartney

The Beatles George Harrison Ringo Starr  

History of the Beatles | Long-term influence | British Invasion | Classic rock era | Paul is Dead rumours | Apple Records | George Martin | Geoff Emerick | Brian Epstein | Beatlesque | Discography | Bootlegs | Beatlemania

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