South Korea

Template:South Korea infobox South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. To the north, the Republic of Korea borders North Korea, with which it formed a single nation until 1948. Its division was finalized by the Korean War. The country is commonly called Hanguk ("Han Nation", 한국; 韓國) or Namhan ("South Han", 남한; 南韓) by South Koreans and Namjosŏn ("South Chosŏn", 남조선; 南朝鮮) in North Korea. The capital is Seoul (서울).



Main articles: History of Korea, History of South Korea

After the end of World War II, the world's superpowers divided Korea into two zones of influence. In 1948, two matching governments were formed: a communist North and a United States-influenced republic South. In June 1950, the Korean War broke out. The United Nations-backed South and the USSR-backed North eventually reached a stalemate and an armistice was signed in 1953, splitting the peninsula along the demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel, which had been the original demarcation line.

Thereafter, South Korea, under the autocratic government of Syngman Rhee and the dictatorship of Park Chung Hee, achieved rapid economic growth. In 1980 Park Chung Hee was overthrown in a military coup which in turn brought General Chun Doo-hwan into power. Massive student demonstrations in the spring of that year resulted in a military crackdown and the Gwangju Massacre. During this time a US general retained ultimate operational control over joint US-South Korean forces. Civil unrest dominated politics until protests succeeded in overthrowing the dictatorship and installing a more democratic form of government in the late 1980s with the election of Roh Tae-woo to the presidency. In the 1990s, South Korea became one of the world's largest economies. In 1996 South Korea joined the OECD. Today, South Korea is a fully functioning modern democracy and one of Asia's most affluent nations.

A potential Korean reunification has remained a prominent topic; no peace treaty has yet been signed with the North. In June 2000, a historic first North-South summit took place, part of the South's continuing "Sunshine Policy" of engagement. Since then, regular contacts have led to a cautious thaw. However, there have been recent concerns over the North's nuclear weapons program.

See also: Rulers of Korea, Division of Korea

Government and Politics

Main article: Politics of South Korea

Missing image
The National Assembly

The Republic of Korea is a developed, stable, democratic republic with powers shared between the president and the legislature.

The head of state of the Republic of Korea is the president, who is elected by direct popular vote for a single five-year term. In addition to being the highest representative of the republic and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the president also has considerable executive powers and appoints the prime minister with approval of parliament, as well as appointing and presiding over the State Council or cabinet.

The unicameral Korean parliament is the National Assembly or Kukhae (국회), whose members serve a four-year term of office. The legislature currently has 299 seats, of which 243 are elected by regional vote and the remainder are distributed by the proportional representation ballot. The highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court, whose justices are appointed by the president with the consent of parliament.

Since 1948, South Korea has been governed under six constitutions. Each constitution signifies a new South Korean republic. The current government is known as the Sixth Republic under the 1988 constitution.

The main political parties in South Korea are the Uri Party, the Grand National Party (GNP), the Democratic Labor Party (DLP), and the Millennium Democratic Party (MDP). In late 2003 a faction of the MDP split from the party and formed the liberal Uri Party, which gained a slim majority in the National Assembly in the April 2004 legislative elections but failed to secure it after subsequent reelections. The conservative GNP and centrist MDP form the political opposition. The left-wing DLP, which is aligned with labor unions, represents the interests of the working class.

Geography of South Korea

Map of South Korea
Map of South Korea

Main articles: Geography of South Korea

Korea forms a peninsula that extends some 1,100 km from the Asian mainland, flanked by the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west and the East Sea (Sea of Japan) to the east, and terminated by the Korea Strait and the East China Sea (South Sea) to the south. The southern landscape consists of partially forested mountain ranges to the east, separated by deep, narrow valleys. Densely populated and cultivated coastal plains are found in the west and south. About 3,000 islands, most of which are small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts. The total area of South Korea is 99,268 sq km.

South Korea is a mountainous country. Lowlands, located primarily in the west and southeast, constitute only 30 percent of the total land area. South Korea can be divided into three general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and rolling hills; and a southern region, where a maze of mountains and valleys in the west contrasts with the broad basin of the Nakdong River in the southeast.

Halla-san, an extinct volcano that forms Jeju Island, is the country’s highest point at 1,950 m (6,398 ft). Jeju Island is located about 100 km (about 60 mi) off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country’s largest island, with an area of 1,845 sq km (712 sq mi).


The local climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma, and winters that can be bitterly cold on occasion.

In Seoul the average January temperature range is -7 to 1C (19 to 33F), and the average July temperature range is 22 to 29C (71 to 83F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains.

The average annual precipitation in Seoul is 54 inches. In Busan, it is 58 inches.


Most of South Korea's forests were cleared over many centuries for use as firewood and building materials. However, they have rebounded since the 1970s as a result of intensive reforestation efforts. The country's few remaining old-growth forests are protected in nature reserves. South Korea also has more than a dozen national parks. One of the world's most interesting wildlife sanctuaries has developed in the DMZ, having been virtually untouched since 1953. The uninhabited zone has become a haven for many kinds of wildlife, particularly migrating birds.

The national flower of South Korea is the Rose of Sharon, a species of hibiscus that blooms continually from July through October. In South Korea, it is known as mugunghwa, meaning "eternal flower".

Large mammals such as tigers, bears, and lynx were once abundant throughout the Korean peninsula. However, they have virtually disappeared due to human settlement, loss of forest habitat, and overhunting. The Siberian tiger has not been sighted in South Korea since the 1920s. The peninsula has several indigenous species of deer, including the roe deer and the Siberian musk deer.

See also: regions of Korea

Provinces and cities

Main article: Administrative divisions of South Korea.

South Korea consists of 1 Special City (Teukbyeolsi; 특별시; 特別市), 6 Metropolitan Cities (Gwangyeoksi, singular and plural; 광역시; 廣域市), and 9 Provinces (do, singular and plural; 도; 道). The names below are given in English, Revised Romanization, Hangul, and Hanja.

Special City

  • Seoul Special City (Seoul Teukbyeolsi; 서울 특별시; 서울特別市)

Metropolitan Cities

Missing image

  • Busan Metropolitan City (Busan Gwangyeoksi; 부산 광역시; 釜山廣域市)
  • Daegu Metropolitan City (Daegu Gwangyeoksi; 대구 광역시; 大邱廣域市)
  • Incheon Metropolitan City (Incheon Gwangyeoksi; 인천 광역시; 仁川廣域市)
  • Gwangju Metropolitan City (Gwangju Gwangyeoksi; 광주 광역시; 光州廣域市)
  • Daejeon Metropolitan City (Daejeon Gwangyeoksi; 대전 광역시; 大田廣域市)
  • Ulsan Metropolitan City (Ulsan Gwangyeoksi; 울산 광역시; 蔚山廣域市)


  • Gyeonggi Province (Gyeonggi-do; 경기도; 京畿道)
  • Gangwon Province (Gangwon-do; 강원도; 江原道)
  • North Chungcheong Province (Chungcheongbuk-do; 충청 북도; 忠清北道)
  • South Chungcheong Province (Chungcheongnam-do; 충청 남도; 忠清南道)
  • North Jeolla Province (Jeollabuk-do; 전라 북도; 全羅北道)
  • South Jeolla Province (Jeollanam-do; 전라 남도; 全羅南道)
  • North Gyeongsang Province (Gyeongsangbuk-do; 경상 북도; 慶尚北道)
  • South Gyeongsang Province(Gyeongsangnam-do; 경상 남도; 慶尚南道)
  • Jeju Province (Jeju-do; 제주도; 濟州道)

See also: Provinces of Korea and Special cities of Korea for historical information.


Main article: Economy of South Korea

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Considered unstable in the 1960s, South Korea has transformed itself into a leading industrial power in less than 40 years.

As one of the four East Asian Tigers, South Korea has achieved an impressive record of growth and integration into the global economy, making South Korea the 12th largest economy in the world. In the aftermath of WWII, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorest countries of Africa and Asia. Then the Korean War made conditions in Korea even worse. Today its GDP per capita is roughly 20 times North Korea's and equal to the medium economies of the European Union.

This success through the late 1980s was achieved by a system of close government-business ties, including directed credit, import restrictions, sponsorship of specific industries, and a strong labour effort. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector.

Growth plunged by 6.6% in 1998, then strongly recovered to 10.8% in 1999 and 9.2% in 2000. Growth fell back to 3.3% in 2001 because of the slowing global economy, falling exports, and the perception that much-needed corporate and financial reforms have stalled. Led by industry and construction, growth in 2002 was an impressive 5.8%, despite anemic global growth.

As of 2005, in addition to its global leadership in high-speed Internet service, memory semiconductors, flat-panel screens and mobile phones, South Korea ranks first in shipbuilding, third in tire production, fourth in synthetic fiber output, fifth in automotive production and sixth in steel output. The nation also ranked 12th globally in terms of nominal gross domestic product, trade and exports.


A distinctive feature of the South Korean economy is the long-dominant position of the chaebol (conglomerates), most of which were established after the Korean War. In 1995, among the top 30 chaebol, the top four groups were Hyundai, Samsung, Daewoo, and LG. Since the economic crisis of late 1990s, the corporate landscape has changed considerably, partly as a result of government reforms. In 2003, only 4 out of the 18 largest chaebol remained. However, they continue to dominate economic activity.

South Korea's chaebol are often compared with Japan's keiretsu business groupings, the successors to the pre-war zaibatsu. Even the Chinese characters used in Korean and Japanese for chaebol and zaibatsu are the same. However, this comparison is misleading, due to two main differences between the two. First, the chaebol are still largely controlled by their founding families, unlike the keiretsu, which are run by professional corporate managers. Second, the government prevented the chaebol from owning private banks, partly in order to increase its own leverage over the banks in areas such as credit allocation. The keiretsu, by contrast, usually work with an affiliated bank, giving the affiliated companies almost unlimited access to credit.


Main article: Demographics of South Korea

The Korean people

Korea's population is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with the only significant minority being a small Chinese community. Koreans have lived in Manchuria for many centuries, and are now a minority in China. Joseph Stalin forced thousands of ethnic Koreans residing in or near Vladivostok and Khabarovsk to relocate to the Central Asian part of the U.S.S.R., fearing Korean collaboration with the Japanese, while the majority of the Korean population in Japan was brought/kidnapped there as forced labor during the colonial period. Political, social and economic instability of South Korea in the past has driven many South Koreans to emigrate to foreign countries, particularly the United States and Canada. California has a large number of Koreans and Korean-Americans, numbering well over one million people. In recent years the migration levels for South Korean people leaving and returning to South Korea are relatively equal.

The annual rate of population increase in South Korea has dropped steadily from more than 3 percent in the late 1950s to 0.38 percent in 2005 due to people choosing to have less children than in the past. Urbanization of the country has proceeded rapidly since the 1960s, with substantial migration from rural to urban areas; 85 percent of the population is now classified as urban.

Following the division of the Korean peninsula after WWII, about 4 million people from North Korea crossed the border to South Korea. This sudden population increase was partly offset over the next 40 years by emigration from South Korea, especially to the United States. However, South Korea’s burgeoning economy and improved political climate in the early and mid-1990s slowed the high emigration rates typical of the late 1980s. Many of those who emigrated chose to return to South Korea. Currently, the migration rate for South Koreans are equal to zero.

There are many thousands of foreign workers in South Korea. A news article from the newspaper 'Korean Herald' (dated the sixth of June, 2005) states this:

  • "According to the ministry data, as of the end of April, the total size of the alien work force (in South Korea) stands at 378,000, 52 percent of which, or 199,000, are here illegally. "

This 378,000 figure is considered by many to be low and only represents the number of known foreign workers, illegal or not. Some estimates put the total foreign population at over half a million. Because of the high number of illegals in South Korea, it is difficult to get exact figures on the number of foreigners.

This large workforce and foreign population mainly comes from South Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. There are also many workers from the former Soviet Union countries. Many migrant workers also come from Nigeria.

Along with these workers from South Asia and elsewhere, there are also about 11,000 foreign ex-pat English teachers from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa.


About 85 percent of South Koreans live in urban areas. The capital city of Seoul had 10.3 million inhabitants in 2003, making it the most populated single city (excluding greater metropolitan areas) in the world. Seoul is also the country's largest city and chief industrial center. Its density has allowed it to become one of the most "digitally-wired" cities in today's globally connected economy.

Other major cities include Busan (3.9 million), Incheon (2.9 million), Daegu (2.65 million), Daejeon (1.48 million), Gwangju (1.38 million) and Ulsan (1.15 million). Busan is the country's principal seaport.


South Korea's national language is Korean, a distinct language that linguists have not firmly categorized in any language grouping. It is thought by some scholars to be a member of a wider linguistic family of the Altaic languages. Its vocabulary, however, like many East Asian nations, has borrowed a lot from neighboring China, especially in the past. Of all languages, Korean is most similar in grammar to Japanese.

For thousand of years, a system of borrowed Chinese characters called hanja had been used in Korea. However, Hanja fit poorly with the Korean language's grammar, and was too difficult to learn for common people.

A new writing system, Hangul, was invented in 1446 by King Sejong the Great to spread literacy. Its creation is known as the royal proclamation of Hunmin Jeongeum (훈민정음/訓民正音) which literally means the "proper sounds to teach the general public." The full extent of King Sejong's involvement in the development of the writing system is unclear; it is widely acknowledged that King Sejong at least commissioned the development of hangul, with the intention to foster wider literacy among the Korean people. Unlike Chinese characters, the Hangul alphabet is phonetically based. Numerous underlying words still stem from hanja.

In 2000 the government decided to introduce a new romanization system, which this article also uses. English is taught as a second language in most primary and intermediate schools. Those students in high school are also taught 2 years of either Chinese, German, Japanese or French as an elective course.


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Bulguksa Temple was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 1995.

Christianity (29%) and Buddhism (26%) comprise South Korea's two dominant religions. Christianity initially got a foothold in Korea during the Japanese Occupation, then in the 1970s and early 1980s grew exponentially, and despite slower growth in the 1990s, caught up to Buddhism as a significant faith. Presbyterians (with around 6.5-7.8 million members), Roman Catholics (2.5-3.8 million), Pentecostals (1-1.7 million), and Methodists (1-1.4 million) are the largest denominations. Statistics have been published purporting to show that almost 50 percent of South Koreans are Christians, but these figures are almost certainly inflated, due to the high incidence of dual membership and unrecorded transfers of membership among different denominations. Christians, although well represented in all parts of South Korea, are especially strong around Seoul, where they comprise about 50 percent of the population. (See also Christianity in Korea)

Buddhism is stronger in the more conservative south of the country, especially in Busan and other rural parts of the country. There are a number of different "schools" in Buddhism; among them are the Seon (선) (Imported from Chan Buddhism in China, then later taught to the Japanese as Zen Buddhism), and the more modern Wonbulgyo (원불교) movement, which emphasizes the unity of all things. Other religions comprise about 9.4 percent of the population. These include Shamanism (traditional spirit worship) and Cheondogyo, an indigenous religion combining elements of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Christianity. Confucianism is small in terms of self-declared adherents, but the great majority of South Koreans, irrespective of their formal religious affiliation, are strongly influenced by Confucianist values, which continue to permeate Korean culture.

About 46 percent of South Koreans profess to follow no particular religion. There are also about 37,000 members of the Bah' Faith and about 33,000 Muslims. The remaining religions include Taoism and Hinduism.


Main articles: Culture of Korea, Contemporary culture of South Korea

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Korean traditonal hanbok

Korean cultural development is generally divided into periods coinciding with political development: the Three Kingdoms period (57 B.C. - 668 A.D.), the Unified Silla dynasty (668-935), the Koryo dynasty (918-1392), the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910), and the modern period (1910]]-present).

Historically, Korea was strongly influenced by Chinese culture and acted as a conduit of culture from China to Japan. Koreans adapted many Chinese art forms with innovation and skill, creating distinctively Korean forms. For many centures, metalwork, sculpture, painting, and ceramics flourished throughout the Korean peninsula. Buddhism provided one of the most significant sources for artistic expression. Confucianism, also prominent, emphasized the importance of literature and calligraphy, as well as portrait and landscape painting.

Western influence began to dominate Korean society in the late 1800s, when Korea opened itself to the Western world. During the Japanese colonial rule, indigenous traditions were strongly discouraged. Since then, however, Koreans have made a concerted effort to keep their cultural traditions alive. Koreans possess a deep apprecation for their cultural heritage. The South Korean government actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs as well as sponsorship of an annual national competitive exhibition.

Many great scholars and philosophers lived in Korea, but are not well known to outsiders due to the country's early isolationism. One example is King Sejong the Great, who invented the world's first rain gauge and water clock.

South Korea shares its traditional culture with that of North Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since its division into two separate states. And despite China's historical influence on Korean culture, the roles are reversed today, with an increased Korean influence in China in terms of popular music, fashion and television drama. In recent years, Korean pop culture has gained massive popularity in many parts of Asia, earning the name Hallyu or "Korean Wave". Korean pop culture has also made way into Japan, with Korean singers like BoA,Bi, Dong Bang Shin Gi, Se7en, Seo Tae-Ji and many more. Television drama such as Winter Sonata and Super Rookie is gaining massive popularity there. Many have viewed the popularity of Korean pop culture in Japan as a path to reconciliation between the two countries.

See also: List of Koreans, Korean cuisine, Taekwondo, Music of Korea, Korean painting, Korean dance, Korean ceramics

Foreign relations

There are several disputes between South Korea and Japan. Refer to the Korean-Japanese disputes for other disputes.

Sea name dispute

There is a dispute about the name of the sea bounded by the Korean peninsula, Russia, and Japan. Many maps call it the Sea of Japan, but in South Korea it is exclusively known as the "East Sea," and in North Korea it is known as the "East Sea of Korea". In compromise, some maps use both names, calling it the "Sea of Japan (East Sea)". For further details on this dispute, see Dispute over the name of the Sea of Japan.

Territorial dispute

South Korea and Japan have a territorial dispute over "Liancourt Rocks" in the East Sea (also known as Sea of Japan). The islet is called "Takeshima" in Japanese and "Dokdo" in Korean. Liancourt Rocks is predominantly volcanic rock and surrounded by rich fishing grounds. There might also be some deposits of natural gas in the area. Currently it is controlled by South Korea, however, Japan also claims the territory and is asking the South Korean government for mediation by the International Court of Justice.

Japan's claim that Liancourt Rocks are a territory in Japan included in Shimane Prefecture, is based on the 'Article 40 of the Shimane Prefecture's Ordinance' documented in 1905. The Japanese side, with the cabinet having proclaimed the "Liancourt Rocks" as its land on January 28, 1905 and with the governor of the Prefecture having incorporated the islets into the Shimane Prefecture a month later, argues that the islets constitute as a legitimate territory within international law. Moreover, Japan was an occupied by the United States when South Korea began to control Liancourt Rocks and therefore unable to express its territorial claim to South Korean government at that time. The Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea that the Japanese and South Korean governments ratified states that a bilateral dispute should be solved by talks.

In contrast, Korean side presents as an important evidence royal edict No. 41 of the King Gojong in the 1900 government gazette notice to the effect that the Ulleung County jurisdiction comprises of Ulleung Island and Seok-do. (Dok-do was referred to as Seok-do in the royal edict.) Thus, Dok-do was not unclaimed territory when Japanese cabinet unilaterally claimed it in 1905. Before this, Japan had fought two consecutive wars for the control of the Korean Peninsula, the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.

Historical evidences date back to the Annals of Three Kingdoms (Samguk Sagi). In 512, the 13th year of the King Jijeung, the Annals records that State of Usan including Ulleung Island belonged to the Silla Dynasty; and it is generally inferred from this that the Seok-do was incorporated into the Dynasty along with the Ulleung-do. The geography book or Jiriji, compiled in the year 1432 of the Joseon Dynasty, also records that two islands, Usan and Ulleung were on the sea to the due east. Another geographical book called "Sinjeungdongguk Yeojiseungram," published in 1531, describes in its section on Uljin-hyeon, Gangwon Province that 'Usan-do and Ulleung-do were on the sea to the due east. The historical record of Ulleung-do 1694 by Jang Han-sang of Samcheok Cheongsa indicates that there was an island about 300 ri (or 75km) from and one third the size of the Ulleung-do. Under the Article 2 and Section a of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan was to recognize the independence of Korea and return Jeju, Geomun, Ulleung Islands; in this section, there was no mention on Dok-do. Korean side argues, however, that the Dok-do, even though its name was not specifically referred to in the Treaty, was assumed to be part of the Ulleung-do.

Another disputed territory is the Island known as "Daemado" in Korean and "Tsushima" in Japanese. Currently the island is controlled by the Japanese. In the 15th century, General Lee Jong-mu conquered the Island from Masan, Korea and put it under the jurisdiction of Gyeongsang Province. According to Jeoson records, Dongguk Yeojiseungram, Korea never formally handed over the island to Japan.


Domestic tourism is quite popular among Koreans, but is still catching on with non-Koreans. Seoul is the principal tourist destination for non-Koreans. Popular tourist destinations for Koreans include Seorak-san national park, the historic city of Gyeongju, and semi-tropical Jeju Island. Travel to North Korea is not normally possible except with special permission, but in recent years organized group tours have taken South Koreans to Kŭmgang-san mountain in the North.

See also

External links

Countries in East Asia
China (PRC) | Japan | North Korea | South Korea | Taiwan (ROC)*
Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong | Macau
The political status of Taiwan is disputed.
ar:كوريا الجنوبية

bg:Южна Корея ca:Corea del Sud chr:ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᎵ ᎪᎴᎠ da:Sydkorea de:Sdkorea et:Luna-Korea es:Corea del Sur eo:Sud-Koreio fr:Core du Sud ko:대한민국 hi:दक्षिण कोरिया io:Sud-Korea id:Korea Selatan ia:Corea del Sud it:Corea del Sud he:דרום קוריאה la:Respublica Coreae li:Zuud-Korea lv:Dienvidkoreja lt:Pietų Korėja ms:Korea Selatan zh-min-nan:Hn-kok nl:Zuid-Korea nds:Sdkorea ja:大韓民国 no:Sr-Korea pl:Republika Korei pt:Coreia do Sul ru:Южная Корея se:Mtta-Korea scn:Corea d Sud simple:South Korea sk:Južná Kórea sl:Južna Koreja sr:Јужна Кореја fi:Korean tasavalta sv:Sydkorea th:ประเทศเกาหลีใต้ uk:Південна Корея zh:大韩民国


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