Qom Province

From Academic Kids

Map showing Qom in Iran
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Masoumeh.jpg
Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza, one of Iran's holiest places, is in Qom.
Contents

Introduction

Qom is one of the 30 provinces of Iran with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its provincial capital is the city of Qom. It was formed from part of Tehran province in 1995. In 1996, this province had a population of approximately 853,000 out of which 91.2 % resided in urban areas and 8.8 % in rural vicinities. The province contains one city, four counties, nine rural districts, and 256 villages.

Geography

The climate of Qom province varies between a desert and semi-desert climate, and comprises of mountainous areas, foothills and plains. Due to being located near an arid region and located at a distance from the sea, it experiences a dry climate, with low humidity and scanty rainfall. Thus, agriculture is not possible in most of its areas, especially near the salt lake regions.

Qom province has two large salt lakes, namely: Howz e Soltan Lake, which can be seen from the Qom-Tehran freeway, and the larger Namak Lake further to the east.

History and Culture

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GonbadSabz.jpg
Gonbad e Sabz, contains tombs of three famous Qomians from the 14th century.
History of Iran
Elamite Empire
Median Empire
Achaemenid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
Parthian Empire
Sassanid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
Samanid dynasty
Buwayhid dynasty
Ghaznavid Empire
Seljuk Turkish empire
Khwarezmid Empire
Ilkhanate
Muzaffarid dynasty
Timurid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
Zand dynasty
Qajar dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
Iranian Revolution
Islamic Republic of Iran

Qom is said to have existed in the pre-Islamic ages. Architectural discoveries indicate that Qom was a residential area from the 5th millennium BC. According to the pre-Islamic remaining relics and historical texts, Qom was a large city. 'Kom' was the name of the ancient rampart of the city of Qom, thus, the Arabs called it Qom during the Arab conquests of Iran.

It was during the reign of the second caliph Omar, that Qom's center was captured by the Muslims. In the year 23-24 AH on the Islamic Lunar calendar, Abu Moosa Ashari, dispatched forces under his command to Qom. Conflicts arose between the invading Arabs and the residents of the area.

During the persecution of the Alavids by the Abbasids and Umayyads, many Alavids fled to Qom, making it their permanent home. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun sent forces to Qom in the year 210 AH, resulting in a public massacre and destruction of the city.

On hearing of the demise of Al-Ma'mun, the inhabitants of Qom revolted and were successful in overthrowing the representative of the Caliph in 216 AH. However Al-Ma'mun's successor, Al-Mu'tasim, dispatched forces to Qom in order to curb the riots and once again the city was set aflame. The unrest continued until the Buwayhid dynasty (Al e Booyeh in Persian) came to power, being of the Alavid community. It was during this reign that the city of Qom expanded and thrived.

In the Saljuqi era the city flourished too. During the Mongol invasion the city witnessed destruction, but after Mongol rulers, particularly after Sultan ljeit Khoda bandeh of the Ilkhanate dynasty converted to Islam, the city received special attention, thus witnessing a revival once more.

In the late 14th century, the city came under the plunder of Tamerlane when the inhabitants were massacred again. During the periods of the rule of the 'Qarah Qoyoonloo', 'Aq Qoyoonloo', and specially during the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed.

By 909 AH., Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to the Shiite Islam, and became a vital pilgrimage site and religious pivot.

During the Afghan invasion, the city of Qom suffered heavy damages, and its inhabitants witnessed severe economic hardships. Qom further sustained damages during the reigns of Nadir Shah, and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajar in order to gain power in Iran.

In 1208 AH., Qom came under the control of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar . On being victorious over his enemies, Fath Ali Shah was responsible for the repairs done on the sepulchre and Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soomeh (AS), as he had made such a vow.

The city of Qom thrived in the Qajar era. After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom. The transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was discussed. But the British and Russians demolished the plan by bringing the monarch of the times, Ahmad Shah Qajar under pressure. Coinciding with this period, a 'National Defense Committee' was set up, and Qom turned into a political and military apex against the Russian and British colonial powers.

Qom was also the center from which Ayatollah Khomeini based his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty, while in Iran.

Qom today

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TimchehQom.jpg
The Grand Timcheh of Qom's Bazaar.

Today, Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiite sect both in Iran and round the globe. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soomeh are prominent features of the provincial capital of Qom province. Another religious site of pilgrimage is outside the city of Qom, and is called Jamkaran. Qom's proximity to Tehran has given it an advantage as well.

Qom's major universities and institutions are:

Attractions of Qom

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. But the more visited sites of Qom are:

  • Kahak cave
  • Vashnuh cave
  • Howz e Soltan Salt Lake
  • Namak Great Salt Lake
  • Mar'ashi Najafi Library, with over 500,000 handwritten texts and copies.
  • Astaneh Moqaddaseh Museum
  • Qom Bazaar
  • Feyzieh Seminary
  • Jamkaran Mosque
  • Qom Jame' Mosque
  • Qom Atiq Mosque
  • A'zam Mosque
  • Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh

External websites


de:Qom (Provinz)

fa:استان قم it:Qom (provincia)

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