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Ptolemy XII of Egypt

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Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother) (117 BCE - 51 BCE) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. His mother is unknown. He was king of Egypt from 80 BCE to 58 BCE and from 55 BCE until his death. He followed Ptolemy XI Alexandros II who had been killed by an angry crowd, after having killed his popular coregent Berenice III, who was incidentally also a daughter of Ptolemy IX Soter II. At first, he was coregent with his daughter Cleopatra VI Tryphaina and his wife Cleopatra V Tryphaena, but the former mysteriously disappears from the records in 69 BCE. His personal cult name (Neos Dionysos) earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes (flute player) - which he was by the way, as we learn from Strabo's writing (Strab. XVII, 1, 11). During his reign he tried to secure his own fate and the fate of his dynasty by means of a pro Roman policy. At the height of his success in 59, after paying substantial bribes to Caesar and Pompey, a formal alliance was formed (foedera) and his name was inscribed into the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani). However in 58 after he failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, he was forced to flee to Rome. His daughter Berenice IV became his successor. From Rome he prosecuted his restitution. He was finally brought back into office with help of the Romans in 55. From then on he reigned until he fell ill in 51. Soon before his death he chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. In his will he declared that she and her brother Ptolemy XIII should rule the kingdom together. To safeguard his interests, he made the people of Rome executors of his will.

Preceded by:
Ptolemy XI
Ptolemaic King of Egypt
First Reign
with Cleopatra V and Cleopatra VI
Succeeded by:
Cleopatra V and Berenice IV
Berenice IV Ptolemaic King of Egypt
Second Reign
with Cleopatra VII
Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII
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