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Peterborough

From Academic Kids

For other uses, see Peterborough (disambiguation).
Peterborough
OS Grid Reference:Template:Gbmappingsmall
Lat/Lon:Template:Coor dm
Population: 156,050 (2001 Census)
Dwellings: 65,301 (2001 Census)
Administration
Borough:Peterborough
Region:East of England
Nation:England
Other
Ceremonial County:Cambridgeshire
Traditional County:Northamptonshire
Post Office and Telephone
Post town:PETERBOROUGH
Postcode:PE1
Dialling Code:01733

Peterborough is a city in the east of England. Along with surrounding towns it forms the Peterborough unitary authority.

The Romans first established the fort of Durobrivae -- which later grew into a town -- in the vicinity around 43 AD.

Peterborough Cathedral is one of the most notable mediaeval cathedrals in Britain.

Contents

Local government

Arms of Peterborough City Council
Enlarge
Arms of Peterborough City Council

The old town is entirely within the traditional county of Northamptonshire, being part of a special region known as the Soke of Peterborough, but post-industrial urban growth expanded into Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire. In 1889 the Soke was made an administrative county, but was subsequently considered too small for its purpose, and so was merged with administrative Huntingdonshire in 1965 to form Peterborough and Huntingdonshire. From 1974 until it became a unitary authority in 1998 it was part of Cambridgeshire.

History

Peterborough (Burgh, Burgus sancti Petri) is proved by its original name Medehamstede to have been a Saxon village before 655 when Saxulf, a monk, founded the monastery on land granted to him for that purpose by Penda, king of Mercia. Its name was altered to Burgh between 992 and 1005 after Abbot Kenulf had made a wall round the minister, but the town does not appear to have been a borough until the 12th century. The burgesses received their first charter from "Abbot Robert" — probably Robert of Sutton (12621273).

Historically the dean and chapter, who succeeded the abbot as lords of the manor, appointed a high bailiff, and the constables and other borough officers were elected at their court leet, but the borough was incorporated in 1874 under the government of a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Among the privileges claimed by the abbot as early as the 13th century was that of having a prison for felons taken in the soke and borough. In 1576 Bishop Scamble sold the lordship of the hundred of Nassaburgh, which is coextensive with the soke, to Queen Elizabeth I, who gave it to Lord Burghley, and from that time until the 19th century he and his descendants, marquesses of Exeter, had a separate gaol in Peterborough for prisoners arrested in the soke.

The trades of weaving and woolcombing were carried on in Peterborough in the 14th century. The abbot formerly held four fairs, of which two, one called St Peter's fair, granted in 1189 and later held on the second Tuesday and Wednesday in July, and the other called the Bridge fair, granted in 1439 and held on the first Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday in October, still survive and were purchased by the corporation from the ecclesiastical commissioners in 1876.

Peterborough sent two members to parliament for the first time in 1547.

The philosopher Richard Cumberland (16311718) became bishop of Peterborough in 1691.

Modern-day Peterborough

Designated a "new town" in 1968, Peterborough Development Corporation was formed in partnership with the city council to double the city's population by building new townships and parkways (roads with few access points). During the period between 1971 and 1991, Peterborough's population grew by 45.4%.

Peterborough has a business airfield with a paved runway at Conington and a recreational airfield hosting a well-known parachute school at Sibson. It remains an important railway junction where passengers from the "joint line" to Lincoln, a commuter service from London via Hitchin, or cross-country routes between Birmingham and Stansted may change to or from high-speed trains serving the East Coast Main Line. These latter trains link King's Cross with destinations in Yorkshire, north-east England or Scotland.

Today Peterborough is a multi-cultural city, with significant Asian, Afro-Caribbean and Italian communities. The city has an estimated population of just under 157,000 with the estimated population of the entire Greater Peterborough area being well over half a million.

As the last resting-place of King Henry VIII's wife Catherine of Aragon, buried in Peterborough Cathedral, the city is twinned with the Spanish city of Alcalá de Henares, Catharine's birthplace. Peterborough is also twinned with Bourges (France), Forli (Italy), Viersen (Germany), and Vinnytsya (Ukraine).


Places of interest

Radio station

Near Peterborough there is a broadcasting facility for FM and TV. To this facility belonged a 163 metre high guyed radio mast, which collapsed on October 30th, 2004 after a fire.

See also

External links


Districts of England - East of England Flag of England

Babergh | Basildon | Bedford | Braintree | Breckland | Brentwood | Broadland | Broxbourne | Cambridge | Castle Point | Chelmsford | Colchester | Dacorum | East Cambridgeshire | East Hertfordshire | Epping Forest | Fenland | Forest Heath | Great Yarmouth | Harlow | Hertsmere | Huntingdonshire | Ipswich | King's Lynn and West Norfolk | Luton | Maldon | Mid Bedfordshire | Mid Suffolk | North Hertfordshire | North Norfolk | Norwich | Peterborough | Rochford | St Albans | St Edmundsbury | South Bedfordshire | South Cambridgeshire | Southend-on-Sea | South Norfolk | Stevenage | Suffolk Coastal | Tendring | Three Rivers | Thurrock | Uttlesford | Watford | Waveney | Welwyn Hatfield

Administrative counties with multiple districts: Bedfordshire - Cambridgeshire - Essex - Hertfordshire - Norfolk - Suffolk

af:Peterborougheo:Peterborough
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