From Academic Kids

ڨرليس إندير كيڠان Perlis Indera Kayangan
Image:Bendera perlis.png Missing image
Image:Lambang Perlis.jpg

State Flag Coat of Arms
State motto: no State motto
Missing image

Capital Kangar
Royal Capital Arau
Raja Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin
Regent Syed Faizuddin Putra
Chief Minister Shahidan Kassim
Area 810 km2
 - Est year 2000

State anthem Amin amin ya Rabaljalil

Perlis, (Jawi:بيرلس) in full Perlis Indera Kayangan, is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Thailand on its northern border.

The population was estimated as 198,335 in the year 2000. The ethnic breakdown was Malay ( 166,200 or 78%), Chinese (24,000, or 17%), Indian (3,700), Other (5,400), Other bumiputra (600)

The capital of Perlis is Kangar and the royal capital is Arau. Another important town is Padang Besar, at the Malaysian-Thai border. The main port is the small village of Kuala Perlis. Perlis has a snake farm & Gua Kelam as tourist attractions, as well as the small but beautiful Taman Negara Perlis state park.


Perlis was originally part of Kedah, although it occasionlly came under rule by Siam or Aceh. After the Siamese conquered Kedah in 1821, the British felt their interests in Perak to be treatened. This resulted in the 1826 Burney and Low Treaties formalising relations between the two Malay states and Siam, their nominal overlord. In the Burney Treaty, the exiled Kedah sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was not restored to his throne. Sultan Ahmad and his armed supporters then fought unsuccessfully for his restoration over twelve years (1830-1842).

In 1842, the Sultan finally agreed to accept Siamese terms, and was restored to his throne of Kedah. However, Siam separated Perlis into a separate principality directly vassal to Bangkok. Syed Hussain Jamalulail, of Arab descent and grandson of the Sultan of Kedah, became the first Raja of Perlis. His descendants still rule Perlis, but as rajas, instead of as sultans.

As with Kedah, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 forced Siam to relinquish its southern Malay vassal states to Great Britain. The British installed a Resident in the Perlis royal capital of Arau. Perlis was returned to Siam by the Japanese in World War II as a reward for Siam's alliance with Japan, but this brief annexation ended with the Japanese surrender. After World War II, Perlis returned to British rule until it became part of the Malayan Union, and the Federation of Malaysia in 1957.

Since 2000, the Raja or hereditary monarch has been Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin, who is concurrently the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. The Regent of Perlis, since December 2001, has been Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra. The Chief Executive or Menteri Besar is Dato' Seri Shahidan Kassim of Barisan Nasional, a former civil servant.

In recent years, the state government's conservative Islamic policies on numerous social issues have created controversy.


The state economy is dominated by agriculture, with rice, sugar and fruits predominating. Forestry and fishery is also important, and the state is making efforts to attract small and medium scale manufacturing.

External links


ms:Perlis nl:Perlis (staat) ja:プルリス州 no:Perlis pl:Perlis zh:玻璃市


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