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الرّضوان ڨيرق دار Perak Darul Ridzuan
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Image:Bendera Perak.png

Image:Lambang Perak.png
State Flag Coat of Arms
State motto: no State motto
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Capital Ipoh
Royal Capital Kuala Kangsar
Sultan Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah
Chief Minister Dato' Seri Diraja Tajol Rosli bin Mohd Ghazali
Area 21,006 km2
 - Est. year 2000

2 030 000
State anthem Allah Lanjutkan Usia Sultan

Perak Darul Ridzuan (Jawi: ڨيرق) is one of the 14 states of Malaysia. Perak is the second largest state in Peninsular Malaysia. It is bordered on the north by Kedah and Thailand, on the east by Kelantan and Pahang, on the south by Selangor and to the west by the Strait of Malacca.

Perak means silver in the Malay language. The name comes most probably from the silvery colour of tin. In the 1890's, Perak, with the richest alluvial deposits of tin in the world was one of the jewels in the crown of the British Empire. However, some say the name comes from the "glimmer of fish in the water" that sparkled like silver.

Its current hereditary Sultan is Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-Lahu, who was the ninth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and formerly the Lord President of Malaysia's Supreme Court. His chief minister or Menteri Besar is currently Dato' Seri Diraja Tajol Rosli bin Mohd Ghazali of Barisan Nasional, a former teacher.

The Arab honorific of the State is Darul Ridzuan, the Land of Grace.

Perak's population is now approximately 2 million. Once Malaysia's most populous state, the decline in the tin mining industry caused an economic slowdown from which it has yet to recover, leading to a massive drain in manpower to higher-growth states such as Penang, Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. The ethnic composition of the population was estimated in 1995 to be: Malay (962,200 or 45%), Chinese (732,500 or 41%), Indian (281,700 or 14%), Other (50,000), Other Bumiputra (41,400).

Pulau Pangkor is a small offshore island that provides some tourist activities such as snorkelling.



Legends tell of a Hindu-Malay kingdom called Gannga Negara in the northeast of Perak. Archaeological discoveries indicate that Perak has been inhabited since prehistoric times.

The modern history of Perak began with the fall of the Melaka Sultanate. The eldest son of the last Sultan of Melaka, Sultan Muzaffar Shah, fleeing the Portuguese conquest of 1511, established his own dynasty on the banks of the Sengai Perak (Perak River) in 1528. As the Perak area was extremely rich in tin, it was under almost continuous threat from outsiders. The Dutch unsuccessfully attempted to monopolize the tin trade in the 17th century, and built forts at the mouth of the Perak River and on Pulau Pangkor. In the 18th century, the Bugis, Acehnese, and the Siamese all attempted to invade Perak. Only British intervention in 1820 prevented Siam from annexing Perak. Although the British were initially reluctant to establish a colonial presence in Malaya, increasing investment in the tin mines brought a great influx of Chinese immigrants, who formed rival clan groups allied with Malay chiefs and local gangsters, all of whom battled to control the mines. The Perak sultanate, involved in a protracted succession struggle was unable to maintain order. In 1874, the Straits Settlements governor Sir Andrew Clarke convened a meeting on Pulau Pangkor, at which Sultan Abdullah was installed on the throne of Perak in preference to his rival, Sultan Ismail. This Pangkor Treaty also required that the sultan accept a British Resident, who would control all administrative issues other than those pertaining the religion or Malay custom. In 1875, various Perak chiefs assassinated the British Resident James WW Birch, resulting in the short-lived Perak War of 1876. Sultan Abdullah was exiled to the Seychelles, and the British installed a new ruler. The new resident, Sir Hugh Low, was well versed in the Malay language and customs, and proved to be a more capable administrator. He also introduced the first rubber trees to Malaya.

In 1896, Perak joined Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States. However, the British Resident system lasted until Perak became part of the Federation of Malaya in 1948.


Historically dominated by the tin mining and rubber, Perak suffered greatly with the decline of those industries. Recent efforts have been made to transform the economy into an industrial / manufacturing based economy.


Modern Perak is divided into 9 administrative divisions,or "daerah" in Malay:

  1. Kinta- Population: 751,825; Area: 1,958
  2. Larut, Matang & Selama- Population:273,321; Area: 2,103
  3. Hilir Perak- Population: 191,098; Area: 1,727
  4. Manjung- Population: 191,004; Area: 1,168
  5. Batang Padang- Population:152,137; Area: 2,730
  6. Kerian- Population: 52,651; Area: 938
  7. Kuala Kangsar- Population: 154,048; Area: 2,541
  8. Hulu Perak- Population: 82,195; Area: 6,558
  9. Perak Tengah- Population: 82,103; Area: 1,282

The main cities and towns in Perak are:

  1. Ipoh
  2. Taiping
  3. Teluk Intan
  4. Sg. Siput(U)
  5. Kuala Kangsar
  6. Lumut
  7. Batu Gajah

External links


fi:Perak fr:Perak id:Perak, Malaysia ja:ペラ州 ms:Perak zh:霹靂州


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