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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

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(Redirected from OSCE)
For other uses, see OSCE (disambiguation).

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. In its region it is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. It has 55 participating states from Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Central Asia and North America.

Contents

Institutions

The decision making bodies of the organization are the Summit, Ministerial Council and Senior Council, with the Permanent Council the regular decision-making body, under the leadership of the Chairman-in-Office (CiO), who holds the position for one year. For 2005, the CiO is the Slovenian Foreign Minister Dimitrij Rupel.

The office of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, established in December 1997, acts as a watchdog to provide early warning on violations of freedom of expression in OSCE member states. The Representative also assists member states by advocating and promoting full compliance with OSCE principles and commitments regarding freedom of expression and free media.

The OSCE headquarters are located in Vienna, Austria. The Organization also has offices in Copenhagen, Geneva, The Hague, Prague and Warsaw.

The OSCE employs close to 440 persons in its various Institutions. In the field, the Organization has about 750 international and 2,370 local staff.

History

The organization was established in 1973 as the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). Talks had been mooted about a European security grouping since the 1950s but the Cold War prevented any substantial progress until the talks at Dipoli in Helsinki began in November 1972. These talks were held at the suggestion of the Soviet Union which wished to use the talks to maintain its control over the communist countries in Eastern Europe. Western Europe, however, saw these talks as a way to reduce the tension in the region, furthering economic cooperation and obtaining humanitarian improvements for the populations of the Communist Bloc.

The recommendations of the talks, "The Blue Book", gave the practical foundations for a three-stage conference, the Helsinki process. The CSCE opened in Helsinki on July 3, 1973 with 35 states sending representatives. Stage I only took five days to agree to follow the Blue Book. Stage II was the main working phase and was conducted in Geneva from September 18, 1973 until July 21, 1975. the result of Stage II was the Helsinki Final Act which was signed by the 35 particpating nations during Stage III, which took place in Helsinki from July 30 to August 1, 1975.

The concepts of improving relations and implementing the Act were developed over a series of follow-up meeting, with major gatherings in Belgrade (October 4, 1977 - March 8, 1978), Madrid (November 11, 1980 - September 9, 1983), and Vienna (November 4, 1986 - January 19, 1989).

The collapse of Communism required a change of role for the CSCE. The Paris Charter for a New Europe which was signed on November 21, 1990 marked the beginning of this change. With the changes capped by the re-naming of the CSCE to the OSCE on January 1, 1995, accordingly to the results of the conference held in Budapest, in 1994.

In Istanbul on November 19, 1999, the OSCE ended a two-day summit by calling for a political settlement in Chechnya and adopting a Charter for European Security.

A 43-member OSCE team helped oversee the October 9, 2004 presidential election in Afghanistan.

After a group of 13 democratic US senators petitioned Secretary of State Colin Powell to have foreign election monitors oversee the 2004 US presidential election, the State Department acquiesced, and President Bush invited the OSCE to do so. [1] (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1187060/posts)

Structural History

The Chairman in Office for -

  • 2005: Slovenian Foreign Minister Dimitrij Rupel
  • 2004: Bulgarian Foreign Affairs Minister Solomon Passy
  • 2003: Netherlands Foreign Minister Jaap de Hoop Scheffer

Fiscal History

Budget (in Millions of Euros, not adjusted for inflation) for -

  • 2005: ?
  • 2004: 180.8
  • 2003: 165.5
  • 2002: 167.5
  • 2001: 194.5
  • 2000: 202.7
  • 1999: 146.1
  • 1998: 118.7
  • 1997: 43.3
  • 1996: 34.9
  • 1995: 18.9
  • 1994: 21
  • 1993: 12

Participating States

State Admission Signed the Helsinki Final Act Signed the Charter of Paris
Template:ALB 1991 19 June 1991 16 September 1991 17 September
Template:AND 1996 25 April 1999 10 November 1998 17 February
Template:ARM 1992 30 January 1992 8 July 1992 17 April
Template:AUT 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:AZE 1992 30 January 1992 8 July 1993 20 December
Template:BLR 1992 30 January 1992 26 February 1993 8 April
Template:BEL 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:BIH 1992 30 April 1992 8 July  
Template:BGR 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:CAN 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:HRV 1992 24 March 1992 8 July  
Template:CYP 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:CZE 1993 1 January    
Template:DNK 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:EST 1991 10 September 1992 14 October 1991 6 December
Template:FIN 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:FRA 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:GEO 1992 24 March 1992 8 July 1994 21 January
Template:DEU 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:GRC 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:VA-HS 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:HUN 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:ISL 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:IRL 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:ITA 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:KAZ 1992 30 January 1992 8 July 1992 23 September
Template:KGZ 1992 30 January 1992 8 July 1994 3 June
Template:LVA 1991 10 September 1991 14 October 1991 6 December
Template:LIE 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:LTU 1991 10 September 1991 14 October 1991 6 December
Template:LUX 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:MLT 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:MDA 1992 30 January 1992 26 February 1993 29 January
Template:MCO 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:NLD 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:NOR 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:POL 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:PRT 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:ROU 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:RUS 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:SMR 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:SCG 2000 10 November    
Template:SVK 1993 1 January    
Template:SVN 1992 24 March 1992 8 July 1993 8 March
Template:ESP 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:SWE 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:CHE 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:TJK 1992 30 January 1992 26 February  
Template:MKD 1995 12 October    
Template:TUR 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:TKM 1992 30 January 1992 8 July  
Template:UKR 1992 30 January 1992 26 February 1992 16 June
Template:UK 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:USA 1973 25 June 1975 1 August 1990 21 November
Template:UZB 1992 30 January 1992 26 February 1993 27 October

See also

External links

cy:Y Sefydliad ar gyfer Diogelwch a Chydweithrediad yn Ewrop de:Organisation fr Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit in Europa nl:Organisatie voor Veiligheid en Samenwerking in Europa no:OSSE pl:Organizacja Bezpieczeństwa i Współpracy w Europie ro:Organizaţie pentru Securitate şi Cooperare în Europa ru:ОБСЕ sl:Organizacija za varnost in sodelovanje v Evropi fi:Euroopan turvallisuus- ja yhteistykonferenssi sv:OSSE

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