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Nitrogen dioxide

From Academic Kids

</table> </table> The chemical compoundnitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a red or orange/brown gas with a characteristic sharp, biting odor. It is considered an insidious deadly poison by inhalation. Nitric oxide (NO) spontaneously produces the dioxide when exposed to air:
2 NO + O2 → 2NO2
It is also generated by various nitric acid reactions, e.g. when metals, such as copper or silver, are exposed to nitric acid. It reacts readily with water, even at normal temperature and pressure, where it disproportionates to nitric and nitrous acid. That reaction is used in the Ostwald process, which in turn allows the industrial production of fertilizers and explosives. Red fuming nitric acid has a certain percentage of dissolved nitrogen dioxide, hence its red color. Nitrogen dioxide is in constant equilibrium with dinitrogen tetroxide. 2NO2 <-> N2O4 This reaction is pushed towards dinitrogen tetroxide as temperatures go down. Nitrogen dioxide rarely exists as a liquid or solid because almost all of it will be converted to dinitrogen tetroxide. Nitrogen dioxide is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Long-term exposure to concentration levels above 40-100 microgram/m causes adverse health effects (http://www.euro.who.int/document/e79097.pdf). From a health point of view, the most important source of nitrogen dioxide is road traffic, emitting nitrogen oxides very near people and causing levels of concern in streets and cities, including exceedances of European limit values. The picture below, depicting results of satelite measurements, illustrates nitrogen dioxide as large scale pollutant, with rural background ground level concentrations in some areas around 30 microgram/m, not far below unhealthy levels. Nitrogen dioxide plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, including the formation of tropospheric ozone.
Missing image
NO2_pollution_europe_hires.jpg
NO2 pollution levels in Europe.
cs:Oxid dusičit

de:Stickstoffdioxid fr:Dioxyde d'azote it:Diossido di azoto sk:Oxid dusičit

zh:二氧化氮

Properties

General

Name Nitrogen dioxide
Chemical formula NO2
Appearance brown/orange gas

Physical

Formula weight 46.01 amu
Melting point see dinitrogen tetroxide
Boiling point see dinitrogen tetroxide
Density 1.58 (air = 1)
Specific gravity 1.4494 at 20C
Crystal structure  
Vapor pressure 400 mmHg at 80°C
Solubility Reacts with water

Thermochemistry

ΔfH0gas   ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid   ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid   ? kJ/mol
S0gas, 1 bar   ? J/mol·K
S0liquid, 1 bar   ? J/mol·K
S0solid   ? J/mol·K
Heat of vaporization 9.110 kcal/mole

Safety

Ingestion  
Inhalation Deadly poison! Insidious. Can cause lung edema or death after several days delay. 100 ppm dangerous, 200 ppm may be lethal for short exposures.
Skin  
Eyes  
More info Odor threshold: 2.0 mg/m³

SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

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