Dinitrogen tetroxide

From Academic Kids

Dinitrogen tetroxide
IUPAC name
Dinitrogen tetroxide
Chemical formula N2O4
Molecular weight 92.011 amu
Appearance Yellow-brown liquid; vapor is reddish-brown
CAS number 10544-72-6
MSDS link N2O4_MSDS_pdf (http://www.airliquide.com/safety/msds/en/090_AL_EN.pdf)
Physical properties
Density and phase at STP 1.45 g/cm3 (?)
Solubility reacts with water
Specific gravity 1.44 (liquid at 20°C)
Crystal structure  ?
pH (10% solution with water)
Acidity constant
Thermal decomposition  ? K (? °C)
Phase behavior
Melting point 261.928 K (-11.2 °C)
Boiling point 310.15 K (21.1 °C)
Triple point  ? K (? °C)
 ? bar
Critical point  ? K (? °C)
 ? bar
Heat of fusion
 ? kJ/mol
Entropy of fusion
 ? J/mol·K
Heat of vaporization
 ? kJ/mol
Ingestion  ?
Inhalation Corrosive & toxic
Skin Corrosive
Eyes Corrosive
Flash point  ? °C
Autoignition temperature n/a °C
Explosive limits  ? - ?%
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit
5 ppm
NIOSH Immediate Danger to Life and Health
20 ppm
  • Hazards:
    •  ?
  • Personal protection:
Skin: Prevent skin contact
Eyes: Prevent eye contact
Wash skin: When contaminated
Remove: When wet or contaminated
Change: No recommendation
Provide: Eyewash, Quick drench
  • Reacts with:
Combustible material, water, chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, ammonia [Note: Reacts with water to form nitric acid.]
  • Storage:
    •  ?
Solid properties
Standard enthalpy change of formation
 ? kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy
 ? J/mol·K
Heat capacity
 ? J/mol·K
Density  ? g/cm3
Liquid properties
ΔfH0liquid  ? kJ/mol
S0liquid  ? J/mol·K
Cp  ? J/mol·K
Density  ? g/cm3
Gas properties
ΔfH0gas  ? kJ/mol
S0gas  ? J/mol·K
Cp  ? J/mol·K

Except where noted, all data was produced under conditions of standard temperature and pressure.

Nitrogen tetroxide (or Dinitrogen tetroxide) (N2O4) is a hypergolic propellant often used in combination with a hydrazine-based rocket fuel. The combination was used to fuel the Titan rockets used in the Gemini missions, and is still used today in the second stage engines of Delta II rockets. By the late 1950s it became the storable oxidizer of choice for rockets in both the USA and USSR. [1] (http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/mwade/props/rocindex.htm)

Nitrogen dioxide is made by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia: steam is used as a diluent to reduce the combustion temperature. Most of the water is condensed out, and the gases are further cooled; the nitric oxide which was produced is oxidised to nitrogen dioxide, and the remainder of the water is removed as nitric acid. The gas is essentially pure nitrogen tetroxide, which is condensed in a brine-cooled liquefier.

Nitrogen tetroxide is a brownish yellow liquid which is easily vaporized. It is a powerful oxidizer, and is highly toxic and corrosive. However, it is not affected by mechanical shock and does not react with air. Nitrogen tetroxide is always in equilibrium with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and some nitrogen dioxide will be present in any quantity of nitrogen tetroxide (higher temperatures push the equilibrium towards nitrogen dioxide).

Nitrogen tetroxide is sometimes a component of smog.

External link

Template:Inorganic-compound-stub Template:Rocket-stubda:Dinitrogentetraoxid fr:Peroxyde d'azote ja:四酸化二窒素


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