Music of Armenia

Music of the Caucasus

Armenia is in the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop similar to nearby Middle-Eastern countries, and extensive Christian music, due to Armenia's status as the oldest Christian nation in the world. Armenian immigrant communities have maintained their folk traditions, especially in the area around Fresno, California.


Christian music

Melismatic chanting, composed in one of eight modes, is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. It is written in khaz, a form of indigenous musical notation. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, who invented the Armenian alphabet. Some of the best performers of these chants, or sharakans, are at the Holy Cathedral of Etchmiadzin, and include the late soprano Lucine Zakarian.

Armenian religious music remained liturgical until Komitas Vardapet introduced polyphony in the end of the 19th century. He collected more than 3,000 folk songs from 1899 to 1910.

Folk music

Armenian Folk Musicians

While under Soviet domination, Armenian folk music was taught in a rigidly controlled manner at conservatoires. Instruments played in this way include kanon (dulcimer), davul (double-headed hand drum), oud (lute), tar (short-necked lute) and zurna (shawm). The duduk is especially important, and its stars include Gevorg Dabagian and Yeghish Manoukian, as well as Armenia's most famous musician, Djivan Gasparyan.

Earlier in Armenian history, instruments like the kamancha were played by popular, travelling musicians called ashoughs. Sayat Nova, an 18th century, ashough, is still revered, as are more modern performers like Rouben Matevosian and Hovhaness Badalian.

The Armenian Diaspora

In 1915, the Young Turk regime killed a large number of Armenians in the eastern part of Turkey, and oppressed Armenian culture, leading to widespread emigration. These emigrants settled in various countries, especially in Central California, and the second- and third-generation have kept their folk traditions alive, with oud-player Richard Hagopian being perhaps the most famous of these musicians.

Classical and pop music

Armenian classical composers include Kemani Tatyos Ekserciyan, one of the most well-remembered composers of Ottoman classical music. The most famous, however, was Aram Khatchaturian, internationally well known especially for his music for various ballets and the immortal Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayaneh. An acclaimed, more recent, classical composer is Khachatur Avetissian, many of whose compositions are based on traditional folklore themes.

In pop music, Suzan Yakar and Udi Hrant Kenkulian were famous cabaret singers of the 1920s and 30s, while more modern Armenian pop stars include Gagik Gevorkian, Harout Pamboukjian, Gayane and emigre Adiss Harmandian.

In France the ethnic Armenian artists Charles Aznavour (aka Aznavourian) and Silvie Vartan (aka Vartanian) are much celebrated show and song-stars for decades.

Armenian-American pop singers and groups include Cher, whose real name is Cher Sarkissian and the popular heavy metal band System of a Down.


  • Download recording of "Erivan bachem arer", an Armenian-American folk song from the Library of Congress' California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties Collection; performed a cappella by Ruben J. Baboyan on April 16, 1939 in Fresno, California


  • Hagopian, Harold. "The Sorrowful Sound". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 332-337. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (
    • Architecture (
    • Cultures (
    • Music (
    • Musical Instruments (
  • Biographies (
  • Clipart (
  • Geography (
    • Countries of the World (
    • Maps (
    • Flags (
    • Continents (
  • History (
    • Ancient Civilizations (
    • Industrial Revolution (
    • Middle Ages (
    • Prehistory (
    • Renaissance (
    • Timelines (
    • United States (
    • Wars (
    • World History (
  • Human Body (
  • Mathematics (
  • Reference (
  • Science (
    • Animals (
    • Aviation (
    • Dinosaurs (
    • Earth (
    • Inventions (
    • Physical Science (
    • Plants (
    • Scientists (
  • Social Studies (
    • Anthropology (
    • Economics (
    • Government (
    • Religion (
    • Holidays (
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (
    • Planets (
  • Sports (
  • Timelines (
  • Weather (
  • US States (


  • Home Page (
  • Contact Us (

  • Clip Art (
Personal tools