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San Diego, California

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San Diego redirects here. For other uses, see San Diego (disambiguation).

Template:Infobox City San Diego is a city located in the southwestern corner of the state of California and the southwestern corner of the continental United States. It is the county seat of San Diego County, California. The city is noted for its temperate climate and numerous beaches. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 1,223,400. As of 2005 the California Department of Finance estimates the city to have 1,305,736 residents. The city is the second largest in California and the seventh largest in the United States.

San Diego is the home of various military facilities including Navy ports, Marine bases, and Coast Guard stations. It is the home port of the largest naval fleet in the world, including two Navy supercarriers, the USS Nimitz and the USS Ronald Reagan, five amphibs, several nuclear submarines, and numerous smaller ships. One of the United States Marine Corps' two Recruit Depots is located here. Several Navy vessels have been named USS San Diego in honor of the city. N.S. North Island is also known as the birthplace of Naval Aviation, (though Pensacola Naval Station makes a rival claim to being the "Cradle of Naval Aviation.")

Contents

History

The area has long been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, sailing for Spain, in 1542. He named it San Miguel. The San Diego Bay and the area of present day San Diego were given their present names by Sebastian Vizcaino when he was mapping the coastline of Alta California for Spain in 1602. The explorers camped near a Native American village called "Nipaguay" and celebrated Mass in honor of San (or Saint) Diego de Alcala (Saint Didacus of Alcal). California was then part of the colony of New Spain.

In 1769, Gaspar de Portolá and his expedition founded a presidio (or military post) and on Sunday July 16, Franciscan Fathers Junpero Serra, Juan Viscaino and Fernando Parron raised and blessed a cross, establishing the first mission in Upper California, Mission San Diego de Alcala. Colonists began arriving in 1774, and the following year, 1775 the native people rebelled. They killed the priest and two others, and burned the mission. Father Serra organized the rebuilding and two years later a more fire-proof adobe structure was started. By 1797 the mission had become the largest in California, with over 1,400 natives associated with it.

In 1821, Spain recognized Mexico's independence. The governor of Alta California and Baja California moved the capital to San Diego from Monterey. The mission was secularized in 1834 and 432 persons petitioned Governor Jos Figueroa to form a town, and Commandant Santiago Arguello endorsed it. Juan Maria Osuna was elected the first alcalde (or mayor), winning over Pio Pico in the 13 ballots cast. However the population of the town shrank to little over a hundred persons, and by the late 1830s it lost its township until the province of Alta California became part of the United States of America in 1850 following the Mexican-American War. The village was designated the seat of the newly designated "San Diego County" and incorporated as a city.

In 1885, San Diego was linked to the rest of the nation by railroad. San Diego was reincorporated as a city in 1886.

Significant U.S. Naval presence began in 1907 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station.

San Diego hosted two World's Fairs, the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935.

Since World War II, the military has played a leading role in the local economy. Following the end of the Cold War the military presence has diminished considerably. San Diego has since become a center of the emerging biotech industry and is home to telecommunications giant Qualcomm.

Largely because of their city's strong military presence, San Diegans have a reputation for being more politically conservative than residents of California's other coastal cities.

Attractions

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San Diego at sunset, 2001
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Scripps Pier
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Crystal Pier.

San Diego is a major tourist destination, attracting visitors from all over the world. Among the many attractions are its beaches, and climate, and deserts. Noted San Diego tourist attractions include:

San Diego is about two and a half hours south of Los Angeles and about half an hour north of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

Transportation

Trolley (LRT) Old Town, San Diego
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Trolley (LRT) Old Town, San Diego

San Diego has trolley (LRT), bus [1] (http://www.sdcommute.com/Rider_Information/bus/), Coaster [2] (http://www.gonctd.com/), and Amtrak service. However, these systems serve limited routes and schedules; the vast majority of transportation in San Diego is by private automobile.

San Diego includes a comprehensive collection of freeways, highways, major arterial roads, and streets that forms circles around the interior and outlying areas in the county. Almost every major freeway in the county crosses through the city, but all are important to the flow of goods and people into and out of the city.

Geography

San Diego is located at 32°46'46" North, 117°8'47" West (32.779541, -117.146344)Template:GR.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 963.6 km² (372.0 mi²). 840.0 km² (324.3 mi²) of it is land and 123.5 km² (47.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 12.82% water.

The city's borders are very irregularly shaped because of the absorption of many suburbs into the city limits. Additionally, the numerous canyons that run through the city create natural boundaries and obstacles to development.

Demographics

As of the censusTemplate:GR of 2000, there are 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,456.4/km² (3,771.9/mi²). There are 469,689 housing units at an average density of 559.1/km² (1,448.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 60.18% White, 7.86% African American, 0.62% Native American, 13.65% Asian, 0.48% Pacific Islander, 12.39% from other races, and 4.83% from two or more races. 25.40% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 450,691 households out of which 30.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% are married couples living together, 11.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% are non-families. 28.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.30.

In the city the population is spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. For every 100 females there are 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $45,733, and the median income for a family is $53,060. Males have a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city is $23,609. 14.6% of the population and 10.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.0% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Current estimates

According to estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments, the median household income of San Diego in 2004 was $56,438 (not adjusted for inflation). When adjusted for inflation (1999 dollars; comparable to Census data above), the median household income was $50,543.

Education

Colleges and universities

Public education

See also

Sports

Sports Venues

Professional Sports Teams

Airports

  • San Diego International Airport, (SAN) a.k.a. Lindbergh International Airport or Lindbergh Field
  • Brown Field Airport, (SDM) a.k.a Brown Field
  • Montgomery Field Municipal Airport, (MYF) a.k.a Montgomery Field

Military Institutions

  • SPAWAR (http://enterprise.spawar.navy.mil/) (Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command)

Neighborhoods

Downtown's Marina district
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Downtown's Marina district
Old Town, San Diego
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Old Town, San Diego

Northern: Bay Ho, Bay Park, Carmel Valley, Clairemont Mesa, Del Mar Heights, La Jolla, La Jolla Village, Mission Beach, North City, North Clairemont, Pacific Beach, Torrey Pines, University City

Northeastern: Carmel Mountain, Miramar, Mira Mesa, Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Peasquitos, Sabre Springs, Scripps Ranch, Sorrento Valley

Eastern: Allied Gardens, Birdland, Del Cerro, Grantville, Kearny Mesa, Lake Murray, Mission Valley East, San Carlos, Serra Mesa, Tierrasanta

Western: Hillcrest, La Playa, Linda Vista, Loma Portal, Midtown, Midway District, Mission Hills, Mission Valley West, Morena, North Park, Ocean Beach, Old Town, Point Loma Heights, Roseville-Fleetridge, Sunset Cliffs, University Heights, Wooded Area

Central: Balboa Park, Barrio Logan, Core-Columbia, Cortez, Gaslamp Quarter, Golden Hill, Grant Hill, Harborview, Horton Plaza, Little Italy, Logan Heights, Marina, Memorial, Park West, Sherman Heights, South Park, Stockton

Mid-City: City Heights, College Area, Darnall, El Cerrito, Gateway, Kensington, Normal Heights, Oak Park, Rolando, Talmadge, Webster

Southeastern: Alta Vista, Bay Terrace, Broadway Heights, Chollas View, Emerald Hills, Encanto, Jamacha-Lomita, Lincoln Park, Mountain View, Mt. Hope, Paradise Hills, Shelltown, Skyline, Southcrest, Valencia

Southern: Egger Highlands, Nestor, Ocean Crest, Otay Mesa, Otay Mesa West, Palm City, San Ysidro, Tijuana River Valley

Cuisine

Owing to its privileged position on the Pacific Ocean and its warm Mediterranean climate, San Diego enjoys an abundance of quality produce and dining. With a myriad ethnic and cultural mix, San Diego is well known for its wide selection of cuisines. One can find excellent Mexican, Italian, Greek, Latin, Central and East Asian, Middle Eastern and Pacific Islander food throughout the city. The city's long history and close proximity to Mexico has endowed an endless array of Mexican cafes and restaurants. Regional homemade specialties, border fare and haute cuisine are all easily available.

San Diego's warm, dry climate and access to the sea have also made it a natural center for the production of fruit and vegetables. Long a center of the tuna industry, San Diego benefits from an abundant seafood supply.

Several of the finest choices of dining can be found in the Gaslamp Quarter, Little Italy, La Jolla and Old Town. The city's many immigrant and ethnic groups have heavily influenced local eating habits and tastes.

Local Specialties:

  • Mexican cuisine (including carne asada, burritos, fish tacos, enchiladas, and ceviche)
  • Woodfired, California-styled Pizza
  • Wide variety of salads made from fresh, local produce (including Caesar, Greek, Mixed, and Caprese Salads)
  • Southern Italian-styled pastas, panini, and pizzas
  • Varieties of shish kebabs, shashlyk, and Gyros
  • South Asian specialties including spring rolls and pho
  • Locally produced, artisan bread
  • Local Wines (San Pasqual Valley, Rancho Bernardo)
  • Locally produced (from the mountains near Julian) hard and sweet cider
  • Various fruits and vegetables (including avocados, tomatoes, mushrooms, olives, aubergines, oranges, lemons, strawberries, grapefruit, grapes, pomegranates, persimmons, and melons)

Several chain restaurants have gotten their start in San Diego. These include: Jack in the Box, Pat & Oscar's, Rubio's, and Anthony's Fish Grotto. Rubio's "fish tacos" are now considered to be the official food of the city.

Shopping Malls

  • Fashion Valley
  • Westfield Shoppingtown, Mission Valley
  • Westfield Shoppingtown, Horton Plaza
  • College Grove
  • University Towne Centre
  • The Shops at Las Americas (Also a U.S.-Mexico Port of Entry walkway and Duty-Free centre)

Hotels

La Jolla

  • The Grand Colonial
  • Hilton Torrey Pines
  • Hotel Parisi
  • La Jolla Beach & Tennis Club
  • La Valencia
  • The Lodge at Torrey Pines

Pacific Beach, Mission Bay, Beach & Valley

  • Catamaran
  • Bahia
  • Dana Inn
  • Hyatt Islandia
  • Paradise Point
  • The Town & Country

Downtown & San Diego Bay

  • Manchester Grand Hyatt San Diego
  • Hilton Gaslamp
  • Horton Grand Hotel
  • Humphrey's Half Moon Inn & Suites
  • San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina
  • Sheraton Harbor Island Hotel & Marina
  • Omni San Diego Hotel at PETCO Park
  • Hotel Solamar
  • W San Diego
  • Westgate
  • Wyndham San Diego at Emerald Plaza
  • U.S. Grant Hotel

External links

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