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Mizrahi Jew

From Academic Kids

Template:Jew Template:Dablink

Template:Unicode Jews sometimes also called Oriental Jews, (מזרחי "eastern", Standard Hebrew Template:Unicode, Tiberian Hebrew Template:Unicode; plural מזרחים "easterners", Standard Hebrew Template:Unicode, Tiberian Hebrew Template:Unicode) are Jews of Middle Eastern origin. Included in the category Template:Unicode, are non-Sephardic Jews from the Arab world as well as other communities, variously including the Gruzim, Persian Jews, Bukharan Jews, Juhurim, and sometimes the Teimanim.

Though many Template:Unicodem now follow the liturgical traditions of the Sephardim, and in modern Israel may be colloquially referred to as Sephardic Jews, the Template:Unicodem are not Sephardic, as they are not descended from those Jews who were expelled from Sepharad (the Iberian peninsula) during the Spanish Inquisition. Including Template:Unicode with Sephardim may be regarded as culturally insensitive or ignorant.

Prior to the emergence of the term Template:Unicode, which dates from the time of the establishment of the State of Israel, Arab Jews (יהודים ערבים) was a commonly used designation for those Template:Unicode originating in Arab lands, though almost never employed by the Template:Unicodem themselves. The term is rarely used today, except among a minority of Template:Unicodem who promote reintroducing the designation Arab Jews instead of Mizrahim; this usage has thus far received little support among the wider community. Many Template:Unicodem today also self-identify with and exhibit affinity towards their (or increasingly their immediate ancestors') country of origin, e.g. "Iraqi Jew," "Tunisian Jew," "Iranian Jew," etc., retaining particular traditions and practices.

Unlike the terms Ashkenazi and Sephardi, Template:Unicode is simply a convenient way to refer collectively to a wide range of Jewish communities, most of which are as unrelated to each other as they are to either the Sephardi or Ashkenazi communities.

Contents

Language

Main article: Mizrahi Hebrew language

The most prominent language associated with the Template:Unicodem are the various Judo-Arabic dialects. A number of notable philosophical, religious, and grammatical works were written in the Arabic language which was modified with the employment of Hebrew characters, and often incorporating Arabic vowel marks.

The Temani Jews from Arabic-speaking Yemen are sometimes included in the Template:Unicode grouping.

Other languages also associated with the Template:Unicode include the Judo-Persian languages, spoken by Iranian Jews.

Post 1948 Dispersal

Most Template:Unicode Jews fled their countries of birth when, in reaction to the events leading up to and following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, citizens of Arab countries acted violently against their local Jewish populations in what they viewed as retaliation for both the creation of the Jewish state of Israel, and for their non-Jewish Arab brethren being turned into refugees as a result. Further anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the 1950s and 1960s, including the expulsion of 25,000 Template:Unicode Jews from Egypt following the 1956 Suez Crisis, led to the overwhelming majority of Template:Unicodem becoming refugees. Most of these refugees fled to Israel.

Today, from the few remaining Template:Unicode communities still existing throughout the Arab world—with a combined population of fewer than 1,000 individuals—a trickle of emigration continues, mainly to Israel and the United States. An additional 11,000 Template:Unicode Jews still reside in Iran. Many there feel actively persecuted, and a number have been arrested, mostly for alleged connections with Israel and/or the United States. Some have even been executed, religious intolerance mainly being cited as the contributing factor. [1] (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/iranjews.html)

Template:Unicode in modern Israel

Template:SectNPOV

From their initial transition to Israel, the Template:Unicodem have distinguished themselves from their Ashkenazi and Sephardi counterparts, in culture, customs and language. Arabic was their mother tongue of some, Persian for those of Iran, Gruzinic, Georgian, Tajik, Juhuri, and various other languages; for some it still is. Hebrew was mainly considered a language of prayer.

The Template:Unicodem were at first moved into rudimentary and hastily erected tent cities, and later sent to development towns. Moshavim (communal farms) were also trialed, however, the Template:Unicodem had been mainly craftsmen and merchants, with very few having been farmers. Furthermore, while most Ashkenazi pioneers were secular and many were socialists, most Template:Unicodem were neither.

Distinguished Template:Unicode personalities

See also

External links

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