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CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] (http://www.meandted.com/author.htm) [2] (http://www.cnn.com/COMMUNITY/transcripts/2000/5/8/bierbauer/) (although he currently is not recognized in CNN's official history). It is a division of the Turner Broadcasting System, owned by Time Warner. CNN is widely credited for introducing the concept of 24-hour news coverage. It celebrated its 25th anniversary on June 1, 2005.

As of December 2004, it is available in 88.2 million U.S. households [3] (http://www.tvweek.com/article.cms?articleId=27290) and more than 890,000 U.S. hotel rooms, and it broadcasts primarily from its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta and from studios in New York City and Washington, DC. Globally, the network has combined branded networks and services that are available to more than 1.5 billion people in over 212 countries and territories.

Contents

History

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CNN Iraq war coverage

Since CNN's launch on June 1, 1980, the network has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television networks (such as CNN Headline News), 12 web sites, two private place-based networks (such as CNN Airport Network), and two radio networks. The network has 42 bureaus around the world and more than 900 affiliates worldwide. CNN has launched many regional and foreign-language networks around the world. CNN debuted its news website CNN.com (then referred to as CNN Interactive) on August 30, 1995, which it describes as the first major news and information website on the Internet.

CNN's global reputation was greatly enhanced in 1991 during the Gulf War, where its saturation coverage was carried around the world. It obtained much of that coverage through close cooperation with the U.S. government, which led to accusations that it did not attempt to investigate the claims of the U.S. government during the war. There was a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about the network's coverage of the war.

CNN International now provides regional editions of its news service, in response to foreign demand for less U.S.-centric news coverage, and also rival services such as BBC World and Sky News. It uses local reporters in many of its news-gathering centers, though they cover stories from an international (some would still say U.S.) perspective.

On September 11, 2001, CNN was the first network to break news of what would prove to be the September 11 attacks.

CNN launched two specialty news channels for the American market which would later close amid competitive pressure: CNNSI shut down in 2002, and CNNfn shut down after nine years on the air in December 2004.

CNN has also been lampooned and parodied. See for instance, Groland and CNNNN

CNN shows

CNN specialized channels

CNN personalities

Past

Present



Controversies and allegations of bias

See also: Media bias, Propaganda model

CNN has come mainly under criticism by conservatives for liberal bias.

Conservatives have alleged that CNN's reporting is characterized by liberal editorials disguised as news and have jokingly referred to CNN as the "Clinton News Network", the "Communist News Network", or "Clearly Not Neutral." Conservative critics point to the following as evidence of bias:

  • During the first Gulf War, CNN reporters Bernard Shaw, Peter Arnett, and John Holliman refused to be debriefed by the US military concerning what they saw during their stay at the Al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad during the initiation of the air campaign, citing themselves as belonging to an "international" news organization and stating it would compromise their journalistic principles. [4] (http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/printer-friendly.asp?ARTICLE_ID=24752) [5] (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fr/633771/posts)
  • On August 16, 1997, Chief News Executive Eason Jordan gave a gift to North Korean leader Kim Jong-il in an attempt to improve CNN's access to North Korean affairs. [6] (http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/1997/9708/news8/16.htm) (Jordan had been credited in 1996 with gaining exclusive access to North Korea for CNN reporters.)
  • In January 1998, Lucia Newman [7] (http://www.cnn.com/CNN/anchors_reporters/newman.lucia.html), the bureau chief in Havana reported that Cuba's single candidate elections were better than the elections with “no dubious campaign spending” and “no mud slinging” in the United States.
  • On March 10, 1999, while speaking at Harvard, Eason Jordan thanked Cuban President Fidel Castro for his comments instigating CNN's decision to broadcast in other countries, CNN International.
  • In 1999, CNN, in partnership with corporate sister Time magazine, ran a report that Operation Tailwind included use of Sarin gas to kill a group of defectors from the United States military. The story proved untrue, CNN issued a public retraction. [8] (http://edition.cnn.com/US/9807/02/tailwind.johnson/)
  • In 2000, Lou Dobbs left CNN, reportedly due to heated clashes with then-president Rick Kaplan, who was frequently accused of manipulating news programs to present a liberal slant. Dobbs returned the following year at the behest of CNN founder Ted Turner.
  • On April 11, 2003, Eason Jordan confessed that CNN knew about human rights abuses committed in Iraq by Saddam Hussein since 1990, but the network abstained from coverage of them in order to gain better access to information on Hussein's government. Jordan maintained that complete reporting would have jeopardized the lives of Iraqi informants, and confidentiality was ensured to protect the lives of anti-Hussein Iraqi activists and translators. [9] (http://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/11/opinion/11JORD.html?ex=1050638400&en=ec21e8cd8fea181c&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND)
  • In November 2004 at the News Xchange conference in Portugal, Eason Jordan claimed that United States armed forces were arresting and torturing non-coalition Arabic journalists in Iraq. He also claimed that American troops were intentionally killing these journalists. [10] (http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1355027,00.html) Also at the conference, Chris Cramer, a CNN executive, claimed that journalists were being "deliberately targeted (by the US military) for seeking out the truth." That month, al-Arabiya reporter Abdel Kader al-Saadi had been detained by U.S. forces for 11 days during U.S.-led attacks on Fallujah without comment on cause for his dentention. [11] (http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=11868)
  • On January 27, 2005 Eason Jordan claimed 12 journalists who were killed were actually targeted by United States troops. He later tried to backtrack on his comments, but resigned from CNN on February 11, 2005 in an effort, he claimed, to spare the network from further controversy. Jordan's comments invoked outrage in the US, even among such "liberal" politicians such as Sen. Christopher Dodd and Rep. Barney Frank.
  • On March 24, 2005 in an interview with PBS' Charlie Rose, CNN President Jonathan Klein called FOX News Channel's audience "mostly angry white men [who] ... tend to be rabid." Klein then said a liberal, progressive TV network would never be as successful as Fox because "progressives don't get too worked up about anything. And they're pretty morally relativistic."

CNN domestic bureaus

(boldface indicate they're CNN's original bureaus, meaning they have been in operation since the network's first day)

CNN international bureaus

(boldface indicate they're CNN's original bureaus, meaning they have been in operation since the network's first day)

Similar networks

The CNN format has inspired many similar cable news services:

See also: 24-hour television news channels (category).

External links

de:Cable News Network el:CNN es:CNN fr:Cable News Network id:CNN la:CNN nl:CNN ja:Cable News Network no:CNN pl:CNN pt:CNN simple:CNN fi:CNN sv:CNN zh:有线电视新闻网

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