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Battle of Grunwald

From Academic Kids

For the 1914 battle at the same location, refer to Battle of Tannenberg (1914)

Template:Infobox Battles

The Battle of Grunwald took place on July 15 1410 between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on one side, and the Knights of the Teutonic Order on the other. In the battle the Teutonic Order state was defeated and never recovered its former influence.

The few eyewitness accounts of the battle are contradictory. The battle was fought in the plains between the now Polish villages of Grunwald (Žalgiris in Lithuanian), Stębark (Tannenberg in German) and Łodwigowo (Ludwigsdorf in German) in what was then Teutonic Order territory. The nearest city of any size was Dąbrwno (Gilgenburg in German). The names Žalgiris (from Lithuanian alia giria) and Grunwald (from German Grnewald), are both tentatively translated as Green forest.

The battle is also called Žalgirio mūšis (Battle of Žalgiris) by Lithuanians, Bitwa pod Grunwaldem (Battle of Grunwald) by Poles, Гру́нвальдзкая бі́тва (Battle of Grunwald) by Belarusians or Schlacht bei Tannenberg (Battle of Tannenberg/Stebark) by Germans, Grnwald suğışı by Tatars.

Contents

Eve of the battle

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Grunwald_Wojciech_Kossak.jpg
Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak

In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights had been invited to the lands surrounding Chełmno to assist in the expulsion of the (pagan) Prussians. They stayed on, and, under a papal edict which gave them effective carte blanche to act as they wished, established a power base in the region, occupying the Baltic coastal regions of what are now Latvia Lithuania and Estonia, and showed every signs of further expansion. Their incursions into Poland in the 14th century gave them control of major towns such as Chełmno and Pomorze. In order to further their war efforts against the (pagan) Lithuanian state, the Teutonic Knights instituted a series of crusades, enlisting support from other European countries.

In 1385 the Union of Krewo joined the crown of Poland and Lithuania, and the subsequent marriage of Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the Polish monarch Queen Jadwiga was to shift the balance of power; both nations were more than aware that only by acting together could the expansion plans of the Teutonic Order be thwarted. Jogaila accepted Christianity and became the King of Poland as Władysław Jagiełło, which removed much of the rationale of the Teutonic Knights' anti-pagan crusades.

However, in 1398 the Knights again invaded what was now a united and mainly Christian state of Poland and Lithuania. At this time, the Poles and the Lithuanians had little option but to suffer in silence for they were still not prepared militarily to confront the power of the Knights.

In 1409 an uprising in Teutonic-held Samogitia started. The king of Poland backed up Lithuania and announced that he would stand by his promises in case the Teutons invaded Lithuania. This was used as a pretext and on August 14 1409 the Teutonic Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen declared war on the Polish-Lithuanian union. The forces of the Teutonic Order initially invaded Greater Poland and Kuyavia, but the Poles repelled the invasion and reconquered Bydgoszcz (Bromberg in German), which led to a subsequent armistice agreement that was to last until June 24 1410. However, the Lithuanians and the Poles used this time in preparations to remove the Teutonic threat once and for all.

Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. Note the distinct black cross on the white background.
Enlarge
Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. Note the distinct black cross on the white background.

The forces of the Teutonic Knights were aware of the Polish-Lithuanian build-up and were expecting a dual attack by the Poles towards Danzig/Gdańsk and the Lithuanians towards Samogitia. To counter this threat, Ulrich von Jungingen concentrated part of his forces in Świecie/Schwetz while leaving large part of his army in the eastern castles of Ragneta/Ragnit, Ryn and Klaipeda/Memel. Poles and Lithuanians continued to screen their intentions by organising several raids deep into enemy territory. Ulrich von Jungingen asked for the armistice to be extended to July 4 in order to let the mercenaries from western Europe arrive. This however gave enough time for the Polish-Lithuanian forces to gather in strength.

On June 30, 1410 the forces of Greater Poland and Lesser Poland crossed the Vistula over a pontoon bridge and joined with the forces of Masovia and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Jagiełło's Polish forces and the Lithuanian soldiers of his cousin Vytautas the Great (to whom Jagiełło had ceded power in Lithuania in the wake of his marriage to the Polish queen) assembled on July 2 1410 and a week later crossed into the territory of the Teutonic Knights, heading for the enemy headquarters at the castle of Marienburg/Malbork. The Teutonic Knights were caught by surprise.

Ulrich von Jungingen withdrew his forces from the area of Świecie/Schwetz and decided to organise a line of defence on the Drwęca River/(Drewenz in German). The river crossings were fortified with stockades and the castles nearby reinforced. After meeting with his War Council, Jagiełło decided to outflank the enemy forces from the East and continue the march towards Marienburg through Działdowo and Dąbrwno. On July 13 both castles were captured and the way towards Marienburg was opened.

Opposing forces

In the early morning of June 15, 1410, both armies met in the fields near the villages of Grunwald, Tannenberg and Łodwigowo (Ludwigsdorf). Both armies were dislocated in line formations. The Polish-Lithuanian army was set up in front of the villages of Łodwigowo/Ludwigsdorf and Stębark/Tannenberg. The left flank was guarded by the Polish forces of king Władysław Jagiełło and composed mostly of heavy cavalry. The right flank of the allied forces was guarded by the army of Grand Duke Vytautas, and composed mostly of light cavalry. Among the forces on the right flank were banners from all over the Grand Duchy, as well as Tatar skirmishers and (probably) Moldavian mercenaries. The opposing forces of the Teutonic Order were composed mostly of heavy cavalry and infantry. They were aided by mercenaries from Western Europe, called "the guests of the Order".

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Krzyzac3.jpg
Teutonic Knights before the Battle of Grunwald. Screenshot from the Polish movie Krzyzacy

The exact number of soldiers on both sides is hard to estimate. There are only two reliable sources describing the battle. The best-preserved and most complete was written by Ioannes Longinus but does not mention the exact numbers. The other is incomplete and preserved only in a brief 16th century document. Shortly after the battle in December 1410 the new Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Heinrich von Plauen, sent letters to Western European monarchs, in which he described the battle as a war against the forces of evil pagans. This view was shared by many chronicle writers. Since the outcome of the battle was subject to propaganda campaigns on both sides, many foreign authors frequently overestimated the Polish-Lithuanian forces in an attempt to explain the dramatic result.

In one of the Prussian chronicles it is mentioned that the forces of the Polish king were so numerous that there is no number high enough in the human language. One of the anonymous chronicles from Lubeck mentions that the forces of Jagiello numbered some 1,700,000 soldiers, the forces of Vytautas with 2,700,000 (as well as a great number of Ruthenians), in addition to 1,500,000 Tatars. Among the forces supposedly aiding the Polish-Lithuanian army were Saracens, Turks, pagans of Damascus, Persia and other lands. According to Enguerrand de Monstrelet the Teutons fielded some 300,000 men, while their enemies under the kings of Lithuania, Poland and Sarmatia fielded 600,000. Andrew of Regensburg estimated the Polish-Lithuanian forces at 1,200,000 men-at-arms.

More recent historians estimate the strength of the opposing forces at a much lower level. Ludwik Kolankowski estimated the Polish-Lithuanian forces at 16,000-18,000 Polish cavalry and 6,000-8,000 Lithuanian light cavalry, with the Teutonic Knights fielding 13,000-15,000 heavy cavalry. Jerzy Dąbrowski estimated the overall strength of the allied forces at 18,000 Polish cavalry and 11,000 Lithuanians and Ruthenians, with the opposing forces bringing 16,000 soldiers.

Historian Poland Lithuania Others Teutonic Order
Luebeck Chronicle 1 700 000 2 700 000 1 500 000
Enguerrand de Monstrelet 600 000 300 000
Andrew of Regensburg 1 200 000
Ludwik Kolankowski 18 000 heavy cavalry 8 000 light cavalry 15 000 heavy cavalry
Jerzy Dąbrowski 18 000 11 000 16 000 + 3 000 guests
Henryk Łowmiański 12 000 heavy cavalry 7 200 light cavalry 11 000 heavy cavalry
Andrzej Nadolski 20 000 10 000 1000

Regardless of such estimates, most of the modern historians count only the cavalry units. Apart from 16,000 cavalry, the Teutonic Order also fielded some 9,000 infantry, archers and crossbow troops. Both armies also had large military camps, tabors and other units, which made up some 10% of their total strength.

Both armies were organised in banners. Each heavy cavalry banner was composed of approximately 240 mounted knights as well as their squires and armour-bearers. Each banner flew its own standard and fought independently. Lithuanian banners were usually weaker and composed of approximately 180 light cavalry soldiers. The structure of foot units (pikemen, archers, crossbowmen) and the artillery is unknown.

The forces on both sides were composed of troops coming from a variety of countries and lands. Apart from units fielded by lands of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Order, there were also mercenaries from Western Europe (most notably Alsace, Lorraine, German Countries, Moravia, Bohemia and probably Moldavia. Historians of the Soviet Union attempted to overemphasize the Russian role in the battle. For example, they included some Lithuanian banners, such as Smolensk, into the Russian list. They also phrased the desciption of the battle to make it appear that the support from Russian lands was decisive. In fact there was a joke that "the battle with the fascist Teutons was won by joint Polish-Soviet forces" (most of the territory of the Grand Duchy was part of the Soviet Union in 20th century).

The overall commander of the joint Polish-Lithuanian forces was king Władysław Jagiełło, with the Polish units subordinated to Marshal of the Crown Zbigniew of Brzezie and Lithuanian units under the immediate command of Grand Duke Vytautas. Until recently it was believed that the Sword Bearer of the Crown Zyndram of Maszkowice was the commander in chief of the joint army, but this idea was based on a false translation of the description of the battle by Ioannes Longinus. The Teutonic Forces were commanded directly by the Grand Master of the Order Ulrich von Jungingen.

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Grunwald_1_ang.jpg
Initial position

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Grunwald_2_ang.jpg
Lithuanian light cavalry retreat

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Grunwald_3_ang.jpg
Right-flank Polish/Lithuanian assault

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Grunwald_4_ang.jpg
Polish heavy cavalry break-through

Course of the battle

The opposing forces formed their lines at dawn. At noon the forces of Grand Duke Vytautas started an all-out assault on the left flank of the Teutonic forces, near the village of Stębark. The Lithuanian cavalry was supported by a cavalry charge of several Polish banners on the right flank of the enemy forces. The enemy heavy cavalry counter-attacked on both flanks and fierce fighting occurred. After more than an hour, the Lithuanian light cavalry started to a planned retreat maneuver towards marshes and woods. This maneuver was oftenly used in the east of Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Mongols so Vytautas who had experience in battles against Mongols used it in this battle. Only three banners of Smolensk commanded by Semen Lingwen, son of Algirdas and brother of both Vytautas and Jagiełło, remained on the right flank. One of them was totally destroyed while the remaining two were backed up by the Polish cavalry held in reserve and broke through the enemy lines to the Polish positions.

Heavy cavalry of the Order started a disorganised pursuit after the fleeing Lithuanians and entered the marshes, where Vytautas started to reorganise his forces. At the same time heavy fighting continued on the left flank of the Polish forces. After several hours of massed battle, the Teutonic cavalry started to gain the upper hand. According to Ioannes Longinus the Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen personally led a cavalry charge on the strongest Polish unit - the Banner of the Land of Krakw. The Polish ranks started to waver and the flag of the banner was lost. However, it was soon recaptured by the Polish knights and king Władysław Jagiełło ordered most of his reserves to enter combat. The arrival of fresh troops allowed the Poles to repel the enemy assault and the forces of Ulrich von Jungingen were weakened. At the same time his reserves were still busy pursuing the scattered Lithuanian cavalry. When they finally returned to the battlefield, it was already too late for the Teutonic charge to succeed and the forces of the Order started the withdrawal.

After several hours of fighting, Ulrich von Jungingen believed in his victory and decided to join his embattled forces in the main line of engagement, which were by then becoming outnumbered by the mass of Polish knights and the advancing Polish infantry, which all of a sudden had come pouring on the battlefield from the surrounding forests. He personally led the assault with 16 banners of heavy cavalry, until then held in reserve. Which was his bigest mistake, because Grand Duke Vytautas returned to the battlefield on the right flank with reorganised forces who weren't tired of the battle. Soon the 16 banners of the Great Master were surrounded and began to suffer high losses, including the Grand Master himself. Seeing the fall of their Grand Master, the rest of the Teutonic forces started to withdraw towards their camp. Part of the routed units retreated to the forests where they were pursued by the Polish and Lithuanian cavalry, while the rest retreated to the camp near the village of Grunwald, where they tried to organise the defence by using the tabor tactics: the camp was surrounded by waggons tied up with chains, serving as a mobile fortification. However, the defences were soon broken and the camp was looted. According to the anonymous author of the Chronicle of the Conflict of Ladislaus King of Poland with the Teutons Anno Domini 1410, there were more bodies in and around the camp than on the rest of the battlefield. The pursuit after the fleeing Teutonic cavalry lasted until the dusk.

Despite the technological superiority of the Teutonic Knights, to the point of this being believed to be the first battle in this part of Europe in which field-artillery was deployed, the numbers and tactical superiority of the Polish Lithuanian alliance were to prove overwhelming.

Jan ika of Trocnov lost his eye in the battle.

After the Battle

The defeat of the Teutonic Order was resounding. According to Andrzej Nadolski the Teutons lost ca. 8,000 soldiers killed in the battle and 14,000 taken captive. Most of approximately 250 members of the Order were also killed, including much of the Teutonic leadership. Apart from Ulrich von Jungingen himself, the Polish and Lithuanian forces killed also the Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode, Grand Komtur Kuno von Lichtenstein and Albrecht von Schwartzburg, the Grand Treasurer Thomas von Merheim. Komtur of Brandenburg, Markward von Salzbach and the mayor of Sambia Schaumburg were executed by order of Vytautas after the battle. The only higher official to save his life was Grand Hospital Master and Komtur of Elbing Werner von Tettinger who escaped from the battlefield. Such a slaughter of noble knights and personalities was quite unusual in Medival Europe and was possible mostly due to the fact that in the latter stages of the battle a large part of peasantry took part in destruction of the surrounded Teutonic troops. Contrary to the noblemen, the peasants did not receive any ransom for taking captives. Among those taken captive were Kasimir V, duke of Szczecin (Stettin), and Konrad the White, duke of Oleśnica.

After the battle Polish and Lithuanian forces stayed on the battlefield for three days. All notable officials were interred in separate graves while the body of Ulrich von Jungingen was covered with royal coat and transported to Marienburg. All the bodies from the battlefield were gathered in several mass graves. There are different speculations as to why Jagiello decided to wait that long. After three days, the Polish-Lithuanian forces moved on to Marienburg and laid siege upon the castle, but the three days time was enough for the Teutons to organise the defence. After several weeks of siege, the Lithuanian Grand Duke withdrew from the war and it became clear that the siege would not be effective. Also, the nobility from Lesser Poland wanted to end the war before the harvest time and the siege was lifted.

After the battle a Peace of Toruń (1411) was concluded in which Poland recovered Dobriner Land ( Dobrzyń Land) and Lithuania recovered Samogitia. This is thought to be a diplomatic defeat of Poland and Lithuania as there were attempts to dismantle the Teutonic Knights state altogether. All in all, the great military victory was a diplomatical failure. However, the indirect results of the battle were much worse for the Teutons. The massacre of Teutonic troops made it impossible to defend their country with own troops and the Grand Masters from then on had to rely on mercenary troops, which proved too expensive for their budget to sustain. Although Heinrich von Plauen, the successor to Ulrich von Jungingen, managed to save his state from complete breakdown, the opposition to his rule both among the burghers, the knights and within the Order itself rose and soon he was ousted.

Eventually, the tragic internal situation led to constant tax increases, which lead to the uprising of the Prussian Confederation. After this battle the power of the Teutonic Knights waned and never recovered; this decline resulted in a series of wars culminating in the Thirteen Years' War. The victorious order myth perished.

Influences of the Battle of Grunwald on modern culture

Poland

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Grunwald_2003.jpg
Jagiello in the reconstruction of the battle in 2003

To commemorate the medieval battle thousands of modern knights from all across Europe gather every year in July at the Grunwald fields to reconstruct the battle again. Great care is put to the historical details of the armour, weapons and the conduct of the battle.

The battle of Grunwald is regarded as one of the most important battles in the Polish history. In eve of WWI (1910 marking half millenium of the battle has been erected Grunwald monument in Krakow. The ceremony spawn demonstration of outraged of Polish society against aggresive politics of German Empire including forcible germanisation of Poles. Polish poet Konopnicka wrote fircely anti-German poem Rota. About the same time Henryk Sienkiewicz wrote his anti-German book The Teutonic Knights. The book was eventually depicted in the propaganda film The Teutonic Knights (Polish: Krzyżacy) by Aleksander Ford.

In Poland, there is commonly known a symbol of two swords, which were supposedly given to king Jagiello before the battle by the Teutonic envoys to "raise Polish desire for battle".

Order Krzyża Grunwaldu (Order of the Grunwald Cross) was a Polish military award created in 1943 by commander of Gwardia Ludowa (in 1944 confirmed by Krajowa Rada Narodowa) and was given for heroism in world war II. De facto it was equivalent of Virtuti Militari.

In Poland there are teams named "Grunwald"' like Grunwald Poznań. Moreover one of administrative districts of Poznań was named after this village - Grunwald.

Lithuania

The victory at the Battle of Grunwald or algirio mūis in 1410 is synonymous to the peak of the political and military power of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The demise of the Teutonic order ended the period of German expansion and created preconditions for the political stability, economic growth and relative cultural prosperity that lasted until the rise of Muscovy in the late XVI century. In the Lithuanian historical discourse regarding the battle there is a lasting debate and controversy over the role played by the Lithuanian-born king of Poland Jogaila and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas, the latter usually being favoured as a national hero.

Leading Lithuanian basketball and football teams are both called "Žalgiris" to commemorate the victorious battle BC algiris and FK algiris.

The term algiris became a symbol of the resistence to the foreign domination over Lithuania. The victories of the basketball club BC algiris Kaunas against the Soviet Army sports club CSKA Moscow (in the late 1980s) served as a major emotional inspiration for the Lithuanian national revival, and the consequent emergence of Sąjūdis movement that led to the collapse of USSR.

Germany

In Germany the battle was known as Tanenberg battle. In 1914 yet another Tannenberg battle took place, this time Germany won over Russians. For German oficial propaganda it marked revenge for Polish victory 504 years before. Tannenberg was often used by Nazi officials.

Russia and Soviet Union

Due to participation of Smolensk squad in the battle, Soviet propaganda depicted the battle as Polish-Lithuanian-Russian coalition against evil Germans.

Belorussia

Due to participation of Belorussian squads in the battle Belorussians depicted the battle as Polish-Lithuanian-Bellorussian coalition against evil Germans.

Banners

Poland

The exact Order of Battle of the Polish forces is unknown. However, Ioannes Longinus in his Histori Polonic written after 1455 recorded 51 Polish banners, together with their descriptions, blazoning and commanders. It is not certain whether the list is full.

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of The Crown - Court Banners
Great Banner of Krakw and the Kingdom of Poland Missing image
Choragiew_Krakowska.png
The Crown

Arms of Poland
Elite troops, under Zyndram of Maszkowice
"Gończa" Court Banner Missing image
Flaga_Goncza.jpg
Goncza

Goncza Coat of Arms
under Andrzej of Ochocice of Osorya
Pogoń Court Banner Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
under Andrzej Ciołek of Żelechw and Jan of Sprowa of Odrowąż
Saint George Missing image
Flaga_Saint_George.jpg
Saint George

Bohemian and Moravian mercenaries, under Sokol and Zbyslavek
  Army of The Crown - Regional Banners
Greater Poland Missing image
Flaga_Wielkopolska.jpg
Greater Poland

Coat of Arms of Greater Poland
Land of Sandomierz Missing image
Flaga_Sandomierz.jpg
Sandomierz

Flag of Sandomierz
Kalisz Missing image
Flaga_Kalisz.jpg
Kalisz

Flag of Kalisz
Land of Sieradz Missing image
Flaga_Sieradz.jpg
Sieradz

Flag of Sieradz
Land of Lublin Missing image
Flaga_Lublin.jpg
Lublin

Jeleń
Land of Łęczyca Missing image
Flaga_Leczyca.jpg
Leczyca

Flag of Łęczyca
Land of Cuyavia Missing image
Flaga_Kujawy.jpg
Cuyavia

Coat of Arms of Cuyavia
Land of Lww Missing image
Flaga_Lwow.jpg
Lwow

Banner of Lww
Land of Wieluń Missing image
Flaga_Wielun.jpg
Wielun

Flag of Wieluń
Reinforced with mercenaries from Silesia
Land of Przemyśl Missing image
Flaga_Przemysl.jpg
Przemyśl

Flag of Przemyśl
Dobrzyń Missing image
Flaga_Dobrzyn1.jpg
Dobrzyn

Coat of Arms of Dobrzyń
Land of Chełm Missing image
Flaga_Chelm1.jpg
Chelm

Coat of Arms of Chełm
Three banners of Podolia Missing image
Flaga_Podole.png
Podolia

Coat of Arms of Podolia
Split up due to large number of knights
Land of Halicz Missing image
Flaga_Halicz.jpg
Halicz

Coat of Arms of Halicz
  Army of The Crown - Masovian Banners
Two banners of
Duke Siemowit IV of Masovia
Missing image
Flaga_Mazowsze.jpg
Masovia

Coat of Arms of Masovia
Masovia, mostly Płock area Dukes of Masovia
Duke Janusz I of Masovia Missing image
Herb_Janusz_I_of_Masovia_1.jpg
Janusz I of Masovia Coat of Arms

own
Masovia, mostly Warsaw area Dukes of Masovia
  Army of The Crown - Personal Banners
Archbishop of Gniezno
Mikołaj Kurowski
Missing image
Flaga_Szreniawa.png
Sreniawa

Śreniawa
Bishop of Poznań
Wojciech Jastrzębiec
Missing image
Herb_Jastrzebiec.jpg
Jastrzębiec

Jastrzębiec
under Jarand of Brudzewo
Castellan of Krakw
Krystyn of Ostrw
Missing image
Flaga_Rawicz.png
Rawicz

Rawicz
Voivod of Krakw
Jan of Tarnw
Missing image
Herb_Leliwa.jpg
Leliwa

Leliwa
Voivod of Poznań
Sędziwj of Ostrorg
Missing image
Flaga_Nalecz.png
Nałęcz

Nałęcz
Voivod of Sandomierz
Mikołaj of Michałowo
Missing image
Flaga_Poraj.png
Poraj

Poraj
Voivod of Sieradz
Jakub of Koniecpol
Missing image
Herb_Pobog.jpg
Pobg

Pobg
Castellan of Srem
Iwo of Obiechw
Missing image
Herb_Wieniawa.jpg
Wieniawa

Wieniawa
Voivod of Łęczyca
Jan Ligęza
Missing image
Flaga_Polkozic.png
Płkozic

Płkozic
Castellan of Wojnice
Andrzej of Tęczyn
Missing image
Flaga_Topr.png
Topr

Topr
Marshal of The Crown
Zbigniew of Brzezie
Missing image
Herb_Zadora.jpg
Zadora

Zadora
Chambelain of Krakw
Piotr Szafraniec
Missing image
Flaga_Starykon.png
Starykon

Starykoń
Castellan of Wiślica
Klemens of Moskorzw
Missing image
Herb_Pilawa.jpg
Pilawa

Piława
Castellan of Śrem and mayor of Greater Poland
Wincenty of Granw
Missing image
Herb_Leliwa.jpg
Leliwa

Leliwa
Dobko of Oleśnica Missing image
Flaga_Debno.png
Dębno

Dębno
Spytko of Tarnw Missing image
Herb_Leliwa.jpg
Leliwa

Leliwa
Lord High Steward of Kalisz
Marcin of Sławsko
Missing image
Herb_Zaremba.jpg
Zaremba

Zaremba
Dobrogost Świdwa of Szamotuły Missing image
Flaga_Nalecz.png
Nałęcz

Nałęcz
Krystyn of Koziegłowy Missing image
Flaga_Lis.png
Lis

Lis
Master King's Cup-Bearer
Jan Mężyk
Missing image
Flaga_Wadwicz.png
Wadwicz

Wadwicz
Deputy Chancellor of the Crown
Mikołaj Trąba
Missing image
Herb_Traby.jpg
Trąby

Trąby
Mikołaj Kmita of Wiśnicz Missing image
Flaga_Szreniawa.png
Sreniawa

Śreniawa
Gryf Clan Gryf Gryf Family of Gryf, under Zygmunt of Bobowa
Zaklika of Korzkiew Missing image
Flaga_Syrokomla.png
Syrokomla

Syrokomla
Clan of Koźlerogi Missing image
Flaga_Jelita.png
Kozlerogi

Koźlerogi
Family, under Castellan of Wiślica Florian of Korytnica
Jan of Jičn Missing image
Flaga_Odrowaz.png
Benesovec

Beneovec
Moravia Volunteers from Moravia, commanded by certain Helm
Steward of the Crown and starost of Lww
Gniewosz of Dalewice
Missing image
Flaga_Kosciesza.png
Strzegomia

Strzegomia
Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia Only foreign volunteers and mercenaries
Duke of Lithuania Zygmunt Korybutowicz Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis

Lithuania

Due to different system of feudal overlordship, as well as lack of heraldic traditions, the units of Grand Duchy of Lithuania were all grouped under banners of two types: the Vytis and the Poles of Gediminas. The only difference between various lands using the same emblem was the blazon. The hareness and the colour of the horse on the Vytis differed.

Note that the number of Lithuanian banners is uncertain. According to Ioannes Longinus there were 40 banners on the right flank of the Polish-Lithuanian forces, 10 flying the Poles of Gediminas and 30 flying the Vytis. However, he also mentions that there might have been 2 additional banners from Smolensk and up to six additional banners of Samogitia. German authors also mention that there were three auxiliary banners of Moldavia flying their own flags. In addition, it is probable that the units of Trakai, Volhynia, Smolensk, Kiev and Nowogrdek used their own emblems.

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of the Grand Duchy - Flying the Vytis Banners
Vytautas the Great Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Minsk Pogoń Vytis
Polock Pogoń Vytis
Hrodna Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Krewo Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Krichev Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Mochylew Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Niasvizh Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Novgorod Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Nowogrd Siewierski Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Orsha Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Slonim Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Slutsk Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Vitsebsk Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
Vladimir Missing image
Pogon.png
Pogoń

Vytis
  Army of the Grand Duchy - Flying the Columns Banners
Zygmunt Korybut Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
under Zygmunt Korybut
Simon, son of Lingwen Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
under Simon, son of Lingwen
Jerzy Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Trakai Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Vilnius Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Grodno Missing image
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Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Kaunas Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Lida Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Miedniki Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Three (?) Banners of Smolensk Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Vitebsk Missing image
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Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Kyiv Missing image
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Columns of Gediminas
Pinsk Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Nowogrdek Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Brest Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Wołkowysk Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Drohiczyn Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Mielnik Missing image
Slupy_Giedymina.png
Słupy

Columns of Gediminas
Krzemieniec Missing image
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Columns of Gediminas
Starodub Missing image
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Columns of Gediminas
  Auxiliary Units
Lipka Tatars none approximately 1000 skirmishers under Jalal ad-Din
Three Banners of Moldavia approximately 900 foot soldiers and 25 knights under Logofat Mihaiu Alexandrel

Related reading

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External links

da:Slaget ved Tannenberg (1410) de:Schlacht bei Tannenberg (1410) fr:Premire bataille de Tannenberg it:Battaglia di Grunwald ja:タンネンベルクの戦い (1410年) lt:Žalgirio_mūšis nl:Slag bij Tannenberg (1410) pl:Bitwa pod Grunwaldem ru:Грюнвальдская битва tt:Grünwald_suğışı

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