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Wladislaus II of Poland

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Wladislaus II on 's painting
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Wladislaus II on Jan Matejko's painting

Wladislaus II Jagiello (Polish Władysław II Jagiełło, Lithuanian Jogaila, Belarusian Jahajla (Ягайла)) (c.1351 - 1 June 1434 Grdek Jagielloński), Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1377 (or 1378) – 1381, 13821392 (or 1401), became King of Poland as Wladislaus II in 1386 after converting to Christianity and marrying Jadwiga, second of Poland's Angevin rulers.

His original name was Jogaila (Jagiełło) and his Christian name was Wladislaus (Polish: Władysław also seen Vladislaus, Ladislaus, Ladislas or Vladislav).

Contents

Royal title

  • Royal title in Latin: Wladislaus Dei gracia rex Polonie necnon terrarum Cracovie, Sandomirie, Syradia, Lancicie, Cuiavie, Lithuanie princeps supremus, Pomoranie Russieque dominus et heres etc.
  • Lithuanian translation: Vladislovas, Dievo valia karalius Lenkijos ir žemių Krokuvos, Sandomiro, Sieradžo, Lečycos, Kujavijos, Lietuvos Didysis Kunigaikštis, valdovas ir paveldėtojas Pomeranijos ir Rutėnijos.
  • Polish translation: Władysław, z Bożej łaski krl Polski, ziemii krakowskiej, sandomierskiej, sieradzkiej, łęczyckiej, kujawskiej, Wielki Książe Litewski, dziedzic Pomorza i Rutenii.

Biography

Jogaila (or Jagiello) was from the dynasty of dukes and grand dukes of Lithuania Gediminaičiai. His father was Algirdas (ruled 1345-1377) (or Olgierd), duke of Lithuania, a son of Gediminas. He was born in the present day state of Belarus.

With the Union of Krewo in 1385, Jagiello married Queen Jadwiga of Poland (who was then only 11 years old) and established the Jagiellonian dynasty, which would rule in Poland and Lithuania until 1572. At the same time, Jagiello accepted Roman Catholicism, as did some other Lithuanian nobles. Thus he became King Władysław II Jagiełło (Wladislaus II) of Poland, and reigned 49 years. After the death of Jadwiga and their newborn daughter in 1399, Jagiello continued to rule, for yet 35 years. Many regarded that he had lost his entitlement to the crown with the death of Jadwiga. However, there were no obvious heirs of ancient Polish monarchs - all potential competitors, of which there existed a vast number, were distant relatives, and although Jagello faced from time to time difficulties, he remained king more or less by default. He tried to strengthen his position and rights by next marrying Anna of Celje, granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland (d 1370), whose mother Anna, Countess of Celje (died 1425), daughter of king Casimir, tried to obtain influence. Anna of Celje also died childless, 1416. Jegello did not yet have any heirs. His next marriages were with ladies of Lithuanian dominions, apparently having nothing to do with ancestors among Polish monarchs.

The Jagiellonian era is usually characterised as the start of Poland's "golden age", and saw the country become a major European power and extend its frontiers to the north and east.

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Pieczec_Majestatyczna_Wladyslawa_Jagielly.jpg
The Majestatic Seal of Wladysław Jagiełło

Jagiello's conversion marked the establishment of Catholic Christianity as the official religion of Lithuania following a brief period of Catholic kingship in the 1250s. Though pagan beliefs continued in the country for some time, the Lithuanian nobility gave its support to the new order upon being promised (in 1401) a voice in the election of the future Polish-Lithuanian rulers.

In military terms, his reign is noted for the crushing defeat inflicted on the Teutonic Knights in neighbouring Province of Prussia by Polish, Lithuanian, Smolensk and Tatar forces at the Battle of Grunwald 1410.

Jagiello was the first of the dynasty of Lithuanian princes who were also kings of Poland (1386-1572). He was succeeded by his son Wladislaus III, and after his death at battle of Varna by second son Casimir IV. Previously rulers from this dynasty, called Gediminaičiai, were great princes of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and after the Krėva Union, Jogaila adopted both titles (Grand duke of Lithuania and King of Poland). Later, however, up until the Union of Lublin, the title of Grand duke of Lithuania was sometimes under dispute and not always belonged to the King of Poland. However, both titles, if separate, were used to be held by members of same Gediminaičiai dynasty who were related to each other in close family ties.

Before that the Piasts were monarchs of Poland, in last century intermitting with the Bohemian Przemysls and followed by a brief period of Angevins.

Although Jagiellonian dynasty was not hereditary and in theory each king of this dynasty was elected, in reality every time when the father died, his son (or brother) was elected as new king.

After the last male member of the Jagiellonian dynasty died out, the kings of Poland were elected by the Polish nobles.

Dynastic Relations

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100zl_r.jpg
100 zloty banknote of Poland with face of Władysław Jagiełło

Jagiello was married in 1385 to Queen Jadwiga of Poland (1374-1399). Their only child was:

  • Elzbieta-Bonifacja (born and died 1399)

Secondly, 1402, with Anna of Celje (1386-1416), a Slovenian noblewoman, and (more importantly) the only child of Anna, a superseded daughter of Casimir III of Poland (d 1370). The mother, Anna Countess of Celje died 1425 without surviving children. The couple did not have children.

Thirdly, Elzbieta Pilczanka. No children.

Jagiello married, fourthly, with Sophia Holczanska, a noblewoman from Ukraine. Their children were:

Mother

Julianna of Tver 1350 (ca 13251392)

Father

Olgierd (ca 1296 – end of May 1377), Grand Prince of Lithuania 13451377

Wives

Queen Jadwiga of Poland 1385 (1374 - 1399)
Sophia Holczanska

Brothers

Demetrius I Starszy (132712 May 1399 Battle of the Worskla River), Prince of Trubczewsk 13571399, Briansk 13571379, Starodub 13701399, Druck 13?? – 13??
Andrzej (14th century12 August 1399), Prince of Polock 13421387, Pskow 13411343, 134? – 1348, 13771379, 13941396
Konstanty (14th century – before 30 October 1390), Prince of Czartorysk
Wlodzimierz (14th century – after October 1398), Prince of Kijow, Kopylsk, Sluck
Fiodor (Theodore; 14th century1399), Prince of Rylsk 13701399, Ratnie 13871394, Briansk 1393
Skirgiello (Iwan; ca 135411 January 1397 Kijow), Prince of Trock 13821395, Kijow 13951397, regent of Lithuania
Korybut (Dymitr; after 1350 – after 1404), Prince of Novgorod-Seversky 13861392/93
Lingweni (Szymon; 14th century – after 19 June 1431), Prince of Mscislaw, regent of Great Novgorod
Korygiello (Kazimierz; after 13501390), Prince of Mscislaw, regent
Wigunt (Aleksander; after 135028 June 1392), Prince of Kiernow
Swidrygiello (Svitrigaylo, Boleslaw; ca 137010 February 1452 Luck), Prince of Witebsk 13921393, 14301436, Podolja 14001402, Novgorod-Seversky 14041408, 14201438, Czernichow 14191430, Grand Prince of Lithuania 14301432, pan Wolynia 14371452

Sisters

Fiedora (born 14th century)
Nowosielska (14th century – ?)
Agrypina (Maria; 14th century1393)
Kenna (Joanna; ca 135027 April 1368), Princess of Slupsk
Helena (after 135015 September 1438), Princess of Borowsko-Sierpuchowsk and third part of the Principality of Moscow, Princess of Wolock and Rzewsk 13891405, Horodeck and Uglick 14051410
Maria (after 1350 - ?), Princess of Lithuania
Wilheida (Katarzyna; after 1350 – after 4 April 1422), Princess of Lithuania
Aleksandra (after 135019 June 1434), Princess of Czersk, Rawsk, Sochaczewsk, Plock, Gostynin, Plonsk, Wisk, Kujawsk and Belsk
Jadwiga (after 1350 – after 1407), Princess of Oswiecim 1395/961405

Sons

King Wladislaus III of Poland (1424 - 1444)
King Casimir IV of Poland (1427 - 1492)

Daughter

Elzbieta-Bonifacja (1399 - 1399)

See also

Giedyminowicze
List of Belarusian rulers
List of Lithuanian rulers
List of Polish rulers

External links

Pages and Forums on Lithuanian History (http://www.istorija.net/)
Belarusian history club (http://www.probelarus.ru/)
"Wladyslaw II" at the Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal05545)
Władysław II Jagiełło (http://www.sp1.szubin.net/patron/jagiello.html)

Template:Kings and Dukes of Poland

be:Ягайла bg:Владислав II de:Wladyslaw II. Jagiello ja:ヴワディスワフ2世 (ポーランド王) lt:Jogaila no:Vladislav II av Polen pl:Władysław II Jagiełło ru:Ягайло sv:Jagiello

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