18th century new

From Academic Kids

Template:Centurybox The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini/Common Era numbering system.

However, historians sometimes specifically define the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815<ref>Template:Cite book, "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1</ref> or even later.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> [[File:Prise de la Bastille.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the ]][[File:Washington Crossing the Delaware.png|thumb|250px|Washington crossing the Delaware, Dec. 25, 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution]]

During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers were dreaming about a better age without the christian fundamentalism of earlier centuries. This dream turned into a nightmare during the terror of Maximlien de Robespierre in the early 1790s. At first, the monarchies of Europe embraced enlightenment ideals, but with the French revolution, they were on the side of the counterrevolution.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost the USA after the American revolution. The industrial revolution started in Britain. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the geology of the surface of the earth.

Contents

Events

1700–1709

[[File:Poltava battle.jpg|thumb|Peter the Great in the ]] [[File:Europa 1700 en.jpg|thumb|250px|Europe on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession (1700)]] [[File:Marlborough-duke-first.jpg|thumb|upright|John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, English general.]]

1710s

[[File:Yoshimune.jpg‎|thumb|Tokugawa Yoshimune, Shogun of Japan.]]

1720s

1730s

[[File:Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg|thumb|upright|]]

1740s

[[File:Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png|upright|thumb|Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia.]] [[File:The Battle of Culloden.jpg|thumb|The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>]]

1750s

[[File:Benjamin West 005.jpg|thumb|]]

1760s

[[File:George III in Coronation Robes.jpg|upright|thumb|George III, King of Great Britain.]]

1770s

[[File:Rejtan Upadek Polski Matejko.jpg|thumb|250px|Rejtan and the ]]

1780s

[[File:Portrait of George Washington.jpeg|thumb|]]

[[File:1801 Antoine-Jean Gros - Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole.jpg|thumb|upright|Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole]]

1790s

[[File:new ross.gif|thumb|The Battle of New Ross took place in Ireland, during the Irish Rebellion of 1798.]] [[File:kamehamehaportrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Kamehameha I, King of the Hawaiian Islands]]

Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

Template:See also [[File:Levni 002 detail.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Anniex.jpg|thumb|upright|Queen Anne]] [[File:MA178788.jpg|upright|thumb|Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and ]] [[File:Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Louis16-1775.jpg|thumb|upright|Louis XVI]] [[File:Peter der-Grosse 1838.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:J S Copley - Paul Revere.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg‎|thumb|upright|Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea.]]

Show business, theatre, entertainers

Template:See also [[File:David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough.jpg|thumb|upright|]]

Musicians, composers

Main article: List of Classical era composers

[[File:Young Bach2.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Mozart (unfinished) by Lange 1782.jpg|thumb|upright|]]

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers

Main article: History of painting

[[File:William Blake by Thomas Phillips.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin.jpg|thumb|upright|]]

Writers, poets

[[File:Samuel Johnson by Joshua Reynolds 2.png|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Alexander Pope by Michael Dahl.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:François de Voltaire porträtterad av Nicolas de Largillière.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Marywollstonecraft.jpg|thumb|upright|]]

Philosophers, theologians

[[File:Louis-Michel van Loo 001.jpg|thumb|upright|]] [[File:Emanuel Swedenborg full portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|]]

Scientists, researchers

[[File:Edward Jenner2.jpg|thumb|]] [[File:James Watt.jpg|upright|thumb|James Watt]]

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Main article: Timeline of historic inventions#18th century

[[File:Spinning jenny.jpg|thumb|The ]] [[File:Red building Putuo Zongcheng Temple.JPG|thumb|The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.]]

Literary achievements

[[File:Jean-Jacques Rousseau (painted portrait).jpg|thumb|upright|]]

References

Template:Reflist

Decades and years

Template:DecadesAndYears Template:Centuriesmhr:XVIII курым

af:18de eeu als:18. Jahrhundert ar:قرن 18 an:Sieglo XVIII ast:Sieglu XVIII az:XVIII əsr zh-min-nan:18 sè-kí be:18 стагоддзе be-x-old:18 стагодзьдзе bs:18. vijek br:XVIIIvet kantved bg:18 век ca:Segle XVIII cv:XVIII ĕмĕр cs:18. století cy:18fed ganrif da:18. århundrede de:18. Jahrhundert et:18. sajand el:18ος αιώνας es:Siglo XVIII eo:18-a jarcento eu:XVIII. mendea fa:سده ۱۸ (میلادی) fo:18. øld fr:XVIIIe siècle fy:18e ieu ga:18ú haois gv:18oo eash gd:18mh Linn gl:Século XVIII gan:18世紀 ko:18세기 hy:18-րդ դար hr:18. stoljeće io:18ma yar-cento id:Abad ke-18 os:XVIII æнус is:18. öldin it:XVIII secolo he:המאה ה-18 jv:Abad kaping-18 ka:XVIII საუკუნე kk:18 ғ. kw:18ves kansbledhen sw:Karne ya 18 ku:Sedsala 18'an la:Saeculum 18 lv:18. gadsimts lb:18. Joerhonnert lt:XVIII amžius lij:XVIII secolo li:Achtiende iew hu:18. század mk:18 век mi:Rautau 18 mr:इ.स.चे १८ वे शतक ms:Abad ke-18 nl:18e eeuw nds-nl:18e eeuw ja:18世紀 nap:XVIII seculo no:18. århundre nn:1700-talet nrm:XVIIIe s. nov:18esmi sekle oc:Sègle XVIII uz:XVIII asr nds:18. Johrhunnert pl:XVIII wiek pt:Século XVIII ksh:18. Joohunndot ro:Secolul al XVIII-lea ru:XVIII век sah:XVIII үйэ stq:18. Jierhunnert sq:Shekulli XVIII scn:Sèculu XVIII simple:18th century sk:18. storočie sl:18. stoletje sr:18. век sh:18. vijek su:Abad ka-18 fi:1700-luku sv:1700-talet ta:18ம் நூற்றாண்டு tt:18. yöz th:คริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 18 tr:18. yüzyıl tk:18-nji asyr uk:18 століття vec:XVIII secoło vi:Thế kỷ 18 fiu-vro:18. aastagasada wa:18inme sieke yi:18טער י"ה zh-yue:18世紀 bat-smg:XVIII omžios zh:18世纪

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