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Tonbridge

From Academic Kids

Tonbridge
OS Grid Reference:Template:Gbmappingsmall
View aerial photograph (http://www.multimap.com/map/photo.cgi?client=public&X=558346&Y=147806&scale=50000)
Administration
Borough:Tonbridge & Malling
County:Kent
Region:South East England
Nation:England
Other
Ceremonial County:Kent
Traditional County:Kent
Post Office and Telephone
Post town:TONBRIDGE
Postcode:TN9 (South), TN10 (North)
Dialling Code:01732

Template:GBdot Tonbridge is a market town in the English county of Kent, with a population of 31,600 in 2001. It is located on the River Medway, approximately four miles north of Tunbridge Wells, 12 miles south west of Maidstone and 25 miles south east of London.

Contents

History

It belongs to the administrative borough of Tonbridge and Malling (population 107,560 in 2001). The town stands at a point where the Saxons built a bridge across the River Medway. For much of its existence, the town remained to north of the river, since the land south was subject to extensive flooding. One part of the town is still called 'Dryhill'.

Tonbridge was recorded in the Domesday Book 1087 as Tonebrige, which may indicate a bridge belonging to the estate or manor (from the Old English tun), or alternatively a bridge belonging to Tunna, a common Anglo-Saxon man's name. In the late 1800s, the 'Tonbridge' name was actually known as Tunbridge: old maps prior to this date show it as such, as does an 1871 map. In the late 1890s/early 1900s, this was changed to Tonbridge by the Royal Mail as it caused confusion with Tunbridge Wells, a much more recent town. The latter has always spelt its name that way.

An 11th Century castle was built here by Richard Fitz Gilbert, a nobleman in William the Conqueror's invading army. The town was besieged by William Rufus, soon after his accession to the throne, the lord of the manor having pledged allegiance to William's brother, Robert. It was afterwards taken by King John, during his conflict with barons and was subsequently besieged by Prince Edward, son of Henry III. On this occasion the besieged garrison burnt the town rather than see it fall. The town and Tonbridge Castle were rebuilt after this and in the 13th century became an official residence and records repository of Edward II. At that time, Tonbridge was intended to be a medieval walled town. Walls were never built however, probably because the castle's large bailey could have easily accommodated the town's populace in times of strife. A surrounding bank and ditch known as The Fosse was erected, although only traces of this encircling defence now remain. The historic core of the town still contains a large number of working buildings dating from the 15th Century. During the Civil War the town was on the Parliamentarian side and a Royalist attempt to take it was repulsed.

In 1740, the River Medway was made navigable to Tonbridge, allowing such materials as hops and timber to be carried down river to Maidstone and London. Some of the buildings and the wharves are still recognisable today, downstream of the bridge.

Later, the town and its surrounds became famous for the production of finely inlaid wooden cabinets, boxes and other objects called Tunbridgeware. Another speciality is the production of cricket balls.

Tonbridge today

The town is home to several remaining Grammar Schools, including The Judd School and Tonbridge Grammar School for Girls. Tonbridge School, founded in 1553, is a well respected private boys' school in the centre of the town.

Major industries include light engineering, distribution and services. A monthly farmers' market sells a wide variety of local food and more exotic imports.

Communications

Tonbridge railway station is an important railway junction with lines to London, Ashford, Hastings and Redhill. The town is served by the A21 trunk road between London and Hastings and is close to the M25 motorway.

Postcode: TN. Telephone code: 01732

Miscellaneous

Tonbridge is twinned with the towns of Le Puy-en-Velay in France and Heusenstamm in Germany.

External links

no:Tonbridge

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