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  1. Map (10223 bytes)
    7: ...h-central [[Anatolia]] (now [[Turkey]]); it dates from about [[6200 BC]].
    9: ...tical value, and this has been the source of much fruitful map criticism over the last twenty years, n...
    49: From the last quarter of the 20th century, the indis...
    51: From the computer scientist's standpoint, zooming in...
    55: ...quid crystal display|LCD]], but may apply for a [[cathode ray tube]]), then replacing a pixel by a rectangl...
  2. Timeline of invention (28171 bytes)
    6: * 2.4 MYA: [[Oldowan|Stone tools]] in [[Africa]]
    8: ...YA: Controlled [[fire]] in [[Cradle of Humankind|Africa]]
    26: * [[Cloth]] woven from [[flax]] fiber
    112: * [[1589]]: [[Stocking frame]]: [[William Lee]]
    134: ...quadrant]]: [[Thomas Godfrey (inventor)|Thomas Godfrey]]
  3. List of inventors (14020 bytes)
    12: *[[Manfred von Ardenne]], (1907-1997), [[Germany]]
    39: ...inand Braun]], (1850-1918), [[Germany]] — [[cathode ray tube]]
    53: *[[Jacques-Yves Cousteau|Jacques Cousteau]], [[France]] — [[Aqua-Lung|aqualung]]
    56: ...illiam Cullen]] — mechanical / chemical [[refrigeration]]
    87: *[[Benjamin Franklin]], (1706-1790), [[United States|USA]] &mdas...
  4. Philo Farnsworth (6489 bytes)
    1: ...[[inventor]] credited with the invention of the [[cathode ray tube]] [[television]].
    7: ...ater moved to the [[San Francisco, California|San Francisco]] Bay area with his bride, Elma G. "Pem" F...
    19: ... The [[cathode ray tube]] configuration developed from Farnsworth's work was used in all television se...
    31: ...Street location of his research laboratory in San Francisco.
  5. Capacitor (29664 bytes)
    9: [[Image:Dielectric.png|frame|The electrons in the molecules shift toward th...
    14: :<math>C = \frac{Q}{V}</math>
    32: :<math>i(t) = C \frac{dv(t)}{dt}</math>
    34: The [[impedance]] in [[frequency domain]] can be written as
    36: :<math>Z = \frac{1}{j \omega C} = - j X_C </math>
  6. Electron microscope (5936 bytes)
    11: High [[voltage]] electron beams from a [[cathode]] are focused by [[magnet]]ic lenses on to the sp...
    14: ...y detecting secondary electrons which are emitted from the surface due to excitation by the primary el...
    22: *''Cryofixation'' - freezing a specimen so rapidly, to liquid nitrogen t...
    28: ...the surface from an angle and sputtering material from the surface. A subclass of this is Focussed Ion...
    36: ...his gives the problem of distinguishing artifacts from material, particularly in [[biology|biological]...
  7. Electricity (13894 bytes)
    6: ...eek]] ''&#275;lektron'' = "[[amber]]", which came from an old [[root (linguistics)|root]] ''&#275;lek-...
    10: ..., and coined the modern Latin word ''electricus'' from ''&eta;&lambda;&epsilon;&kappa;&tau;&rho;&omicr...
    12: ...[[Ebenezer Kinnersley]] of [[Philadelphia]] (less frequently) who created the convention of positive a...
    16: Franklin's observations aided later scientists such ...
    18: ...ively charged [[anode]]s and negatively charged [[cathode]]s. When a conductor was attached between these, ...
  8. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (8624 bytes)
    6: .... He later attended [[Utrecht Technical School]], from which he was expelled for producing a caricatur...
    8: ...e graduated with a [[Doctor of Philosophy|Ph.D.]] from the [[University of Zurich]].
    16: ...scaping, yet Röntgen observed that the invisible cathode rays caused a [[fluorescense|fluorescent]] effect...
    18: ...ng a match, he discovered the shimmering had come from the location of the barium platinocyanide scree...
    20: ...nd of ray might be responsible. November 8 was a Friday, so he took advantage of the weekend to repea...
  9. Barium (8466 bytes)
    154: ...pure form. It is primarily found in and extracted from the [[mineral]] [[barite]] which is crystalized...
    156: :([[cathode]]) Ba<sup>2+</sup>* + 2[[electron|e<sup>-</sup>]]...
    167: ...t does not dissolve, and is eliminated completely from the digestive tract.
  10. Shadow mask (2096 bytes)
    1: ...anner ensuring that [[electron]]s from the tube's cathode gun reach the appropriately-colored portion of th...
    5: ...ess and damage to the shadow mask that can result from repeated expand/contract cycles, thus increasin...
  11. Chlorine (10751 bytes)
    39: '''Chlorine''' (from the [[Greek language]] ''Chloros'', meaning "pa...
    44: ... [[salt]]-forming halogen series and is extracted from chlorides through [[oxidation]] and more common...
    50: ...to kill [[bacterium|bacteria]] and other microbes from [[drinking water]] supplies and [[swimming pool...
    73: ...Chlorine has 9 isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 32 to 40. Only three of these isotopes occur na...
    90: ...des, whilst the sodium dissolves into the mercury cathode forming an amalgam.
  12. Copper (13595 bytes)
    136: ...d because so much of it was mined in [[Cyprus]]). From this, the phrase was simplified to ''cuprum'' a...
    138: ...ns of copper [[smelting]], the refining of copper from simple copper oxides such as [[malachite]] or [...
    140: There are copper and [[bronze]] artifacts from [[Sumerian]] cities that date to 3000 BC, and [...
    142: ... an animal skin, a typical shape of copper ingots from these times.]]
    160: ...e Upper Intake Level for adults of dietary copper from all sources is 10 mg/day.
  13. Magnesium (9193 bytes)
    7: ...of this metal is to aid the removal of [[sulfur]] from iron and steel.
    15: ...e production of pure [[uranium]] and other metals from their [[salt]]s.
    17: * Dead-burned magnesite is used for refractory purposes such as brick and liners in furnac...
    21: ...ing of [[tablet|tablets]], to prevent the tablets from sticking to the equipment during the tablet com...
    26: The name originates from the [[Greek language|Greek]] word for a distric...
  14. Aluminium (26079 bytes)
    48: ...the [[world economy]]. Structural components made from aluminium are vital to the [[aerospace]] indust...
    58: ...so coated with a thin layer of aluminium, but are front coated to avoid internal reflections even thou...
    82: ...lue if people started producing this bright metal from clay. Therefore, instead of giving the goldsmit...
    86: ...in bauxite ore and successfully extracted it. The Frenchman [[Henri Saint-Claire Deville]] improved W?...
    88: ...t process]] in [[1886]] made extracting aluminium from minerals cheaper, and is now the principal meth...
  15. Radium (13138 bytes)
    4: <tr><td colspan="2" align="center">[[Francium]] - '''Radium''' - [[Actinium]]</td>
    100: When freshly prepared, pure radium metal is brilliant whi...
    103: Some of the practical uses of radium are derived from its radiative properties. More recently discove...
    104: ... who used their lips to shape the paintbrush died from the radiation. Soon afterward, the adverse effe...
    110: ...lution by using a [[mercury (element)|mercury]] [[cathode]] and [[distillation|distilling]] in an atmospher...
  16. Silver (15157 bytes)
    136: ...ty of any metal and occurs in [[mineral]]s and in free form. This metal is used in [[coin]]s, [[jewelr...
    140: ...[[copper]], but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electr...
    151: ...elry and silverware, which are traditionally made from the silver alloy known as [[Sterling silver]], ...
    153: ...; for example, the production of [[formaldehyde]] from [[methanol]] and air by means of silver screens...
    160: ...Silver oxide]] is used as a positive electrode ([[cathode]]) in watch batteries.
  17. Strontium (11493 bytes)
    173: ...kept under [[kerosene]] to prevent [[oxidation]]; freshly exposed strontium metal rapidly turns a [[ye...
    176: ...ontium is in [[glass]] for [[color]] television [[cathode ray tube]]s.
    181: *[[Strontium titanate]] has an extremely high [[refractive index]] and an [[optical dispersion]] great...
    188: ...nd|Scottish]] town of [[Strontian]], as differing from other [[barium]] minerals in [[1790]].Hope disc...
    191: ...>3</sub>). Of the two, celestite occurs much more frequently in sedimentary deposits of sufficient siz...
  18. Computer display (4276 bytes)
    6: * [[Cathode ray tube]] (CRT)
    11: ...048ױ536) with 32-bit colour and a variety of [[refresh rate]]s.
    24: ...by [[Microsoft]] ([[ClearType]], [[1998]]) and [[XFree86]] ([[X Rendering Extension]]).
    26: ...delay causes an apparent corresponding shift of a fraction of a [[pixel]].
    45: * [[Refresh rate]]
  19. Electron (10516 bytes)
    39: ...18(44)&nbsp;[[MeV]]{{inote|http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/ElectronMass.html}}
    54: ...rd ''electron'' was coined in 1894 and is derived from the term ''electric'', whose ultimate origin is...
    70: ...e vibrations called phonons. When electrons move, free of the nuclei of atoms, and there is a net flow...
    74: ...its vicinity, so that the properties one observes from far away are the sum of the bare properties and...
    78: ...Note that this is the radius that one could infer from its charge if the physics were only described b...
  20. Magnet (13875 bytes)
    4: ...s a [[magnetic field]]. The word ''magnet'' comes from the [[Greek language|Greek]] ''"magn&iacute;tis...
    48: ...s are and all of the backs are. The person at the front of the face end has a back; and the person at ...
    56: ...between magnets and the earth's magnetic field. A freely suspended magnet will eventually orient itsel...
    70: *[[Refrigerator]] magnets
    72: ...magnet to generate an image--see the article on [[cathode ray tube]]s for more information. [[Plasma screen...

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