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Second Coalition

From Academic Kids

The name "Second Coalition" (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain revolutionary France.

The coalition comprised:

After Napoleon Bonaparte mounted an expedition to Egypt and, in spite of several land victories, was unable to transport his army back by sea after the Battle of the Nile, a number of France's enemies prepared a new alliance with Britain to undo his previous conquests. Austria and Russia raised fresh armies for campaigns in Germany and Italy in 1799.

1799

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1799

In Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories driving the French under Moreau out of the Po valley, and forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in Switzerland were defeated by Andre Massena, and Suvorov's army was eventually withdrawn for political reasons.

In Germany, Archduke Charles drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, and won several victories in Switzerland. Jourdan was replaced by Massena.

By the end of the year, Napoleon had returned from Egypt, leaving his army behind, and took control of France in a coup d'etat. He reorganized the French armies and command for the next year's campaign.

1800

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1800

In 1800, Napoleon took personal command of the army in Italy, and eventually won a victory at the Battle of Marengo against the Austrian general Michael Melas, driving the Austrians back towards the Alps.

In Germany, General Moreau defeated Archduke Charles at the Battle of Hohenlinden, forcing him to sign an armistice.

In February 1801 the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhine and the French puppet republics in Italy and the Netherlands. The subsequent Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain began the longest break in the war between France and Britain during the Napoleonic period.

See also


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