Paramita

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Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): "Perfection" or "Transcendent" (lit. "Having reached the other shore"). In Buddhism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. These practices are cultivated by Bodhisattvas for crossing from sensuous life (Samsara) to Enlightenment (Nirvana).

In Theravada Buddhism, the Ten Perfections (Paramis) are; (original terms in Pali)

  1. dana parami : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. sila parami : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. nekhamma parami : renunciation
  4. panna parami : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. viriya parami : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. khanti parami : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. sacca parami : truthfulness, honesty
  8. aditthana parami : determination, resolution
  9. metta parami : loving-kindness
  10. upekkha parami : equanimity, serenity

In Mahayana Buddhism, the Perfection_of_Wisdom (Prajna-paramita) Sutra and Lotus (Saddharmapundarika) Sutra list the Six Perfections as; (original terms in Sanskrit)

  1. dana: generosity, giving of oneself
  2. sila paramita : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. shanti paramita : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  4. virya paramita : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  5. dhyana paramita : meditation, concentration, contemplation
  6. prajna paramita : transcendental wisdom, insight

The later Ten Stages (Dasabhumika) Sutra lists another four;

7. upaya paramita: skillful means
8. pranidhana paramita: vow, resolution, aspiration, determination
9. bala paramita: spiritual power
10. jnana paramita: knowledge, wisdom

External links

ja:波羅蜜 pt:Paramitas

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