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Ossicles

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A left  ear. Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip Art
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A left human ear. Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip Art
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest bones in the human body. They are contained within the middle ear space and serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid filled labyrinth (cochlea). The absence of the auditory ossicles would constitute a moderate to severe hearing loss.

The ossicles are, in order from the eardrum to the inner ear, the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, so named because of the shape of the bones. They are also commonly referred to by the equivalent Latin terms: malleus, incus, and stapes respectively.

The incus is connected to both the other bones. The malleus articulates with the incus and is attached to the eardrum, from which vibrational energy is passed. The stapes articulates with the incus and is attached to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis, the elliptical or oval window or opening between the middle ear and the vestibule of the inner ear.

As sound waves vibrate the eardrum (tympanic membrane), it in turn moves the nearest ossicle, the malleus to which it is attached. The malleus then transmits the vibrations, via the incus, to the stapes, and so ultimately to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis, the opening to the vestibule of the inner ear.

The ossicles give the eardrum mechanical advantage; the resulting vibrations would be much smaller if the sound waves were transmitted directly from the outer ear to the oval window. However, the extent of the movements of the ossicles is controlled (and constricted) by certain muscles attached to them (the tensor tympani and the stapedius) in order to protect the inner ear from excessively loud noise (see acoustic reflex).

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Sensory system - Auditory system Edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Auditory_system&action=edit)
Pinna - Ear canal - Eardrum - Ossicles - Cochlea - Basilar membrane - Organ of Corti - Hair cells - Auditory nerve - Primary auditory cortex
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