Long March rocket

From Academic Kids

Long March 2F
Missing image
CZ-2F_launch_vehicle.png
Long March 2F launch vehicle

Stages 3
0 - Boosters Engines YF - 20B x 4
Thrust 816 kN X 4 = 3,256 kN
Burn time 128 seconds
Fuels N2O4 / UDMH
1 - Core Stage Engines YF - 20B x 4
Thrust 816 kN X 4 = 3,256 kN
Burn time 166 seconds
Fuels N2O4 / UDMH
2 - 2nd Stage Engine YF - 25/23
Thrust 831 kN
Burn time 295 seconds
Fuels N2O4 / UDMH
Launch vehicle 1st Launch November 1999
Payload LEO 42 deg 8,400 kg
Payload GTO 3,370 kg

The Long March family of rockets (長征火箭, Chang Zheng) is an expendable launch system designed and operated by the People's Republic of China.

It is named after the Long March of Chinese communist history. The Shenzhou spacecraft is launched on the Long March rocket. As of 2003, the main stages and the booster rockets of Long March rockets use storable propellants with UDMH as fuel and Nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer. The upper stages of Long March 3A (CZ-3A) and CZ-3B use cryogenic fuel, LH2 as fuel and LOX as oxidizer.

Long March 2F specifications

  • Stage number: 0 - Strap-on boosters x 4
    • Gross mass: 41,000 kg
    • Empty mass: 3,200 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 4 x 816 kN
    • Isp: 291 lbf新/lb (2.9 kN新/kg)
    • Burn time: 128 seconds
    • Diameter: 2.3 m
    • Span: 8.0 m
    • Length: 15.3 m
    • Propellants: N2O4 / UDMH
    • Engines: 1 x YF - 20B per booster = 4
  • Stage number: 1 - Core stage
    • Gross mass: 196,500 kg
    • Empty mass: 9,500 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 3,256 kN
    • Isp: 289 lbf新/lb (2.8 kN新/kg)
    • Burn time: 166 seconds
    • Diameter: 3.4 m
    • Length: 23.7 m
    • Propellants: N2O4 / UDMH
    • Engine: 1 x YF - 20B
  • Stage number: 2 - Final stage
    • Gross mass: 91,500 kg
    • Empty mass: 5,500 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 831 kN
    • Isp: 425 lbf新/lb (4.2 kN新/kg)
    • Burn time: 295 seconds
    • Diameter: 3.4 m
    • Length: 15.5 m
    • Propellants: N2O4 / UDMH
    • Engine: 1 x YF - 25/23

The Long March rocket is related to early versions of the Dongfeng missile (note that Dongfeng is the generic Chinese name for all of its land ICBM's). However, like its counterparts in both the United States and in Russia, the differing needs of space rockets and strategic missiles have caused the development of space rockets and missiles to diverge. The main goal of a space rocket is to maximize payload, while strategic missiles increasing throw weight is much less important than the ability to launch quickly and to survive a first strike. This divergence has become clear in the next generation of Long March rockets which use cryogenic propellants in sharp contrast to the next generation of strategic missiles which are mobile and solid fueled.

The PRC launched its first satellite, known as Dong Fang Hong 1 ("the East is Red"), to Earth orbit on its own Long March space rocket on April 24, 1970, becoming the fifth nation to achieve independent launch capability.

Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, located in Xichang, Sichuan province. Long March launches also take place from the more military oriented Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province from which the manned Shenzhou spacecraft also comes from.

China markets launch services under the Great Wall Industrial Corporation. Its efforts to launch communications satellites were dealt a blow in the mid-1990's after the United States stopped issuing export licenses to companies to allow them to launch on Chinese satellites out of fear that this would help China's military.

On February 15, 1996, a Long March 3B rocket veered off course two seconds after take-off from Xichang space center, crashing into a nearby village. Two weeks later the Chinese news agency Xinhua reported that 80 homes had been damaged with six people killed and 57 injured, but unofficial reports and videotape from people who visited the scene suggested much greater devastation and a significantly higher death toll.

See also

External link

fi:Pitk Marssi (raketti) fr:Longue marche ja:長征 (ロケット) nl:Lange Mars (raket) zh:长征系列运载火箭

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