Frederick I of Sweden

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Frederick I of Sweden (April 23, 1676March 25, 1751), King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel from 1730.

Fredrik I
Missing image
Frederick_I_of_Sweden.jpg
Image:Frederick I of Sweden.jpg

ReignMarch 24, 1720March 25, 1751


(from 1730 in Hesse-Kassel)

CoronationMay 3, 1720
Royal motto "In Deo spes mea"
("In God my hope")
QueenUlrika Eleonora of Sweden
Royal HouseHesse-Kassel
PredecessorUlrika Eleonora of Sweden
SuccessorAdolf Frederick of Sweden
Date of BirthApril 17, 1676
Place of BirthKassel, Germany
Date of DeathMarch 25, 1751
Place of DeathStockholm
Place of BurialRiddarholmskyrkan, Stockholm
Contents

Ancestry

Frederick was the son of the great Hessian ruler Karl I von Hessen-Kassel (16541730) and Marie Amalie Kettler, Princess of Courland (16531711). His maternal grandparents were Jacob Kettler, Duke of Courland (16101682) and Louise Charlotte, Princess of Brandenburg.

Louise Charlotte was daughter of Georg Wilhelm Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia and Charlotte von der Pfalz (15971660). Charlotte was daughter of Frederick IV, Elector Palatine (15741610) and Louise Juliana von Orange-Nassau. Her brother became Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

Louise Juliana was daughter of William I of Orange and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier.

Marriage

He married his first wife, Luise Dorothee Sophie of Prussia (1680-1705), on May 31, 1700. His second wife, whom he married in 1715, was Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (16881741), daughter of Charles XI of Sweden (16551697) and of Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark (16561693).

Reign

Some historians have suggested that Frederick fired the shot, generally claimed to have been a stray bullet, that caused the death of his brother-in-law Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. After his authoritarian brother-in-law, one of the reason the Swedish Estates elected Frederick was because he was taken to be fairly weak, which indeed he turned out to be. He also had to oversee the loss of Sweden's position as a European power as a result of the wars Charles XII had started; in the Treaty of Nystad, he was forced to cede Estonia and Livonia to Russia, in 1721. He is also considered a very weak Hessian monarch, as he only visited his German country a few times and behaved like an absentee landowner, using the Hessian tax revenues to finance his court in Stockholm.

Illegitimate children

Frederick I had three illegitimate children:

Thus, the Hessian line in Sweden ended with him and was followed by that of Holstein-Gottorp. In Hesse-Cassel, he was succeeded by his much abler younger brother William VIII, a famous general.

Preceded by:
Ulrika Eleonora
King of Sweden
1720–1751
Succeeded by:
Adolf Frederick

Template:Commonsda:Frederik I de:Friedrich I. (Schweden) fi:Fredrik I ja:フレデリック1世 sv:Fredrik I

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