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Butane

From Academic Kids

General
Chemical Name Butane
n-butane
Chemical formula CH3(CH2)2CH3
Molecular weight 58.1 g/mol
CAS number 106-97-8
MSDS Butane MSDS
Physical properties
pH (10% solution with water) 7.0
Phase behavior
Melting point -138.3 C (134.9 K)
Boiling point -0.5 C (272.7 K)
Heat of vaporization
vapH)
21 kJ/mol
Safety
Flash point -60 °C
Precautions
  • Hazards:
    • Extremely flammable
  • Personal protection:
    •  ?
  • Reacts with:
    •  ?
  • Storage:
    • Keep container in a well ventilated place
Gas properties
ΔfH0gas -126 kJ/mol
S0gas 310 J/mol·K
Cp 97 J/mol·K
General
Chemical Name 2-methylpropane
Isobutane
Chemical formula CH3CH(CH3)2
Molecular weight 58.1 g/mol
Phase behavior
Melting point -159.6 C (113.6 K)
Boiling point -11.7 C (261.5 K)

Except where noted, all data was produced under conditions of standard temperature and pressure.

Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. Butane is also used as a collective term for n-butane together with its only other isomer, iso-butane (also called i-butane, isobutane, or 2-methylpropane), CH3CH(CH3)2.

Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases.

Contents

Chemical structure

n-Butane has the following chemical structure:

    H   H   H   H
    |   |   |   |
H - C - C - C - C - H
    |   |   |   |
    H   H   H   H

Isobutane, on the other hand, has a branched-chain structure:

Image:N&i-butane.png

Reactions and uses

When air is plentiful, butane burns to form carbon dioxide and steam:

butane + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + steam

When air is limited, carbon (soot) or carbon monoxide may also be formed.

Butane gas is sold bottled as a fuel for cooking and camping, in which case it is referred to commercially as LPG, or, in the UK, calor gas. It is also used as a petrol component, as a feedstock for the production of base petrochemicals in steam cracking, as fuel for cigarette lighters and as a propellant in aerosol sprays.

Recent concerns with depletion of the ozone layer by freon gases have led to increased use of isobutane as a gas for refrigeration systems, especially in domestic refrigerators and freezers. When used as a refrigerant, isobutane is also known as R600a.

See also

External links


 
Alkanes

methane
CH4

|
 

ethane
C2H6

|
 

propane
C3H8

|
 

butane
C4H10

|
 

pentane
C5H12

|
 

hexane
C6H14

heptane
C7H16

|
 

octane
C8H18

|
 

nonane
C9H20

|
 

decane
C10H22

|
 

undecane
C11H24

|
 

dodecane
C12H26

 

tridecane
C13H28

|
 

tetradecane
C14H30

|
 

pentadecane
C15H32

|
 

hexadecane
C16H34

|
 

heptadecane
C17H36

|
 

octadecane
C18H38

 

nonadecane
C19H40

|
 

eicosane
C20H42

|
 

heneicosane
C21H44

|
 

docosane
C22H46

|
 

tricosane
C23H48

|
 

tetracosane
C24H50

 

pentacosane
C25H52

|
 

hexacosane
C26H54

|
 

heptacosane
C27H56

|
 

octacosane
C28H58

|
 

nonacosane
C29H60

|
 

triacontane
C30H62

 

hentriacontane
C31H64

|
 

dotriacontane
C32H66

|
 

tritriacontane
C33H68

|
 

tetratriacontane
C34H70

|
 

pentatriacontane
C35H72

|
 

hexatriacontane
C36H74

 

ca:But

de:Butan es:Butano eo:Butano fr:Butane it:Butano ko:부탄 (물질) nl:Butaan ja:ブタン pt:Butano ru:Бутан (вещество) sl:Butan (plin) sv:Butan

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