From Academic Kids

Template:Chinesename koreanname

Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea

Bohai (Chinese) or Balhae (Korean) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. Bohai was founded by Da Zuorong of the Sumo Mohe tribe and integrated several Mohe tribes and Goguryeo remnants. It was conquered by the Khitan in 926.

In the confusion of the Khitan rebellion against the Tang in 696, Sumo Mohe tribe, led by Qiqi Zhongxiang (Korean: Geolgeol Jungsang) and Qisi Piyu (Korean: Geolsa Biu), escaped eastward to their homeland. The two leaders died but Da Zuorong, the son of Qiqi Zhongxiang, established the State of Zhen (震 or 振, Korean: Jin). Da Zuorong established his capital at Dongmu Mountain in the south of today's Jilin province. Since it gained power under protection of the northern nomadic empire of Gokturk, Tang gave Da Zuorong the title of "Prefecture King of Bohai" in 713. Bohai had been a Chinese prefecture, but since then referred to the kingdom. The title was upgraded to "State King of Bohai" in 762.

The second king Da Wuyi (King Wu), who felt encircled by Tang, Silla and Black Water Mohe along the Amur River, attacked Tang and his navy briefly occupied a port on the Shandong Peninsula in 732. Later, a compromise was forged between Tang and Bohai, which resumed tributary mission to Tang. He also sent a mission to Japan in 728 to threaten Silla from the rear. Bohai kept diplomatic and commercial contacts with Japan until the end of the kingdom. Because of its proximity to many powerful states, Bohai became a buffer zone for the region.

The third king Da Jinmao (King Wen) expanded its territory into the Amur valley in the north and the Liaodong Peninsula in the west. He also established the permanent capital near Lake Jingpo in the south of today's Heilongjiang province around 755.

After destroying Bohai in 926, the Khitan established the puppet Dongdan Kingdom, which was soon followed by the annexation by Liao in 936. Bohai aristocrats were moved to Liaoyang but small fragments of the state remained semi-independent. Some Bohai people fled southward to Goryeo, including a son of the last king. Some descendants of the royal family live in Korea, changing their family name to Tae (太). The Jurchen Jin Dynasty favored the Bohai people as well as the Khitans. The fourth, fifth and seventh emperors were mothered by Bohai concubines. The 13th century census of Northern China by the Mongols distinguished Bohai from other ethnic groups such as Goryeo (Korean), Khitan and Jurchen. This suggests that the Bohai people still preserved their identity.


Characterization and political exploitation

The kingdom that straddled the current borders of the PRC, North Korea and Russia has been positioned and politically exploited in various ways.

Bohai was once likened to Manchukuo for its friendly relationship with Japan. Currently Japanese scholars oppose both the Korean and Chinese political exploitations and try to treat Bohai as itself. Template:History of Korea In North and South Korea, Bohai is regarded as a Korean state and is positioned in the "North-South period" (with Silla) today, although such a trend has been marginal for a long time. Based on their belief that Goguryeo was a Korean state, they emphasize its connection with Goguryeo and degrade that with the Mohe. While South Korean historians think ruling class was of Goguryeo and the commoners were Mohe, North Korean historians think Bohai ethnography was mostly Goguryeo.

The PRC projects the current border to history. It treat everything that happened in its territory as part of its history. Today the Chinese historians consider Bohai as a local government of the Tang, and think it was ruled by the Bohai ethnic group, which was mostly based on the Mohe. They stress the importance of the Bohai-Tang relationship.

Russian scholars think of Bohai as an independent Mohe state, with Central Asian and Chinese influence. They put weight on archaeology.

The genealogy of the royal family is also disputed. Koreans and traditional Chinese historians claim that the founder Da Zuorong was of Goguryeo-kind. The Old Book of the Tang says that Da Zuorong of the the [Goguryeo] kind (高麗別種), while the New Book of the Tang states that he is "from the Sumo Mohe region of the former realm of Goguryeo." New Chinese historians argue that Sumo Mohe is not a region, but an ethnic non-Korean tribe.

Sovereigns of Bohai/Parhae 698-926

The names in this table are given in McCune-Reischauer romanisation, Hangŭl/Chosŏngŭl, Chinese characters and Pinyin.

Posthumous Names
(Shi Hao 諡號)
Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號)
and their according range of years
Kowang 고왕
高王 Gāowng
Tae Joyŏng 대조영
大祚榮 D Zurng
698-718 did not exist
Muwang 무왕
武王 Wǔwng
Tae Muye 대무예
大武藝 D Wǔy
718-737 Inan 인안
仁安 Rěnān
Munwang 문왕
文王 Wnwng
Tae Hŭngmu 대흥무
大欽茂 D Qīnmo
737-793 Taehŭng 대흥 大興 Dxīng
(Poryŏk 보력 寶曆 Bǎol 774-?)
none (disposed) Tae Wŏnŭi 대원의
大元義 D Yuny
793-794 Chunghŭng 중흥
中興 Zhngxīng
Sŏngwang 성왕
成王 Chngwng
Tae Hwahŭng 대화흥
大華興 D Huxīng
794  ?
Kangwang 강왕
康王 Kāngwng
Tae Sŭngrin 대승린
大嵩璘 D Sōngln
794-808 Chŏngryŏk 정력
正曆 Zhngl
Chŏngwang 정왕
定王 Dngwng
Tae Wŏnyu 대원유
大元瑜 D Yuny
808-812 Yŏngdŏk 영덕
永德 Yǒngd
Hŭiwang 희왕
僖王 Xīwng
Tae Ŏnŭi 대언의
大言義 D Yny
812-817? Chujak 주작
朱雀 Zhūqiǎo
Kanwang 간왕
簡王 Jiǎnwng
Tae Myŏngchung 대명충
大明忠 D Mngzhōng
817?-818? Taesi 태시
太始 Tishǐ
Sŏnwang 선왕
宣王 Xuānwng
Tae Insu 대인수
大仁秀 D Rnxi
818?-830  ?
 ? Tae Ijin 대이진
大彝震 D Yzhn
830-857  ?
 ? Tae Kŏnhwang 대건황
大虔晃 D Qinhuǎng
857-871  ?
 ? Tae Hyŏnsŏk 대현석
大玄錫 D Xunx
871-895  ?
 ? Tae Wigye 대위계
大瑋瑎 D Wěixi
895-907?  ?
 ? Tae Insŏn 대인선
大諲譔 D Yīnzhun
907?-926  ?

An important source of cultural information on Bohai was discovered at the end of the 20th century at the Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, especially the Mausoleum of Princess Zhenxiao.

See also

External links

ja:渤海 ko:발해 zh-cn:渤海国


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