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Austrian State Treaty

From Academic Kids

The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15th May 1955), more commonly referred to as Austrian State Treaty (German Staatsvertrag), was signed on the 15th May 1955 in Vienna at Schloss Belvedere between the Allied occupying powers: the USA, the USSR, France and Great Britain, and the Austrian government and officially came into force on the 27th July, 1955.

Contents

Generalities and Structure

The aim of the Treaty was the re-establishment of a free, sovereign and democratic Österreich. The basis for the treaty was the Moscow Declaration on 30th October 1943.

The signators of the treaty were the Foreign Ministers of the time: Vyacheslav Molotov, John Foster Dulles, Harold MacMillan and Antoine Pinay on behalf of the Allies and Leopold Figl, as the Austrian Foreign Minsiter as well as the four High Commissioners of the occupying powers.

The treaty is divided into 9 parts:

  • Preamble
  • Political and territorial provisions
  • Military and air travel provisions
  • Reparations
  • Ownership, Law and Interests
  • Economic relations
  • Rules for disputes
  • Economic provisions
  • Final provisions

Important points in the Treaty

In addition to the general regulations and the recognition of the Austrian state, the minority rights of the Croat and Slovenian minorities are also expressly detailed. Also, another Anschluss (accession) to the new Germany was also forbidden and the prohibition of National Socialism and other fascist organisations was also re-stated.

Furthermore, Austria announced that it would voluntarily declare itself permanently neutral after the enactment of the treaty. Thus, Austrian neutrality is not part of the treaty, but is historically and politically linked with it.

Result

As a result of this treaty the Occupying Powers remained on Austrian territory until 25th October 1955. October 26 is celebrated as National Holiday (until 1965: Day of the Flag). It is sometimes thought to be linked with the withdrawal of allied troups, but is in fact connected to Austria's Declaration of Neutrality, which was passed on October 26, 1955.

Development

First attempts to negotiate a treaty were made by the first post-war government. However, they failed because the allied powers wanted to see a peace treaty with Germany first. A treaty became less likely with the development of the Cold War. However, Austria succeeded in avoid losing parts of Carinthia to Yugoslavia, even though the issue of a potential reunification with South Tyrol was not addressed. The climate for negotiations improved with Stalin's death in 1953. However, a breakthrough was achieved only in February of 1955 in negotiations with the Soviet foreign minister Molotov.

See also

External Links

de:Österreichischer Staatsvertrag sl:Avstrijska državna pogodba

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