Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800's. The solution of an aerodynamic problem normally involves calculating for various properties of the flow, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as a function of space and time. Understanding the flow pattern makes it possible to calculate or approximate the forces and moments acting on bodies in the flow. This mathematical analysis and empirical approximation form the scientific basis for heavierthanair flight.
Aerodynamic problems can be classified in a number of ways. The flow environment defines the first classification criterion. External aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid objects of various shapes. Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane, the shock waves that form in front of the nose of a rocket or the flow of air over a hard drive head are examples of external aerodynamics. Internal aerodynamics is the study of flow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal aerodynamics encompasses the study of the airflow through a jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe.
The ratio of the problem's characteristic flow speed to the speed of sound comprises a second classification of aerodynamic problems. A problem is called subsonic if all the speeds in the problem are less than the speed of sound, transonic if speeds both below and above the speed of sound are present (normally when the characteristic speed is approximately the speed of sound), supersonic when the characteristic flow speed is greater than the speed of sound, and hypersonic when the flow speed is much greater than the speed of sound. Aerodynamicists disagree over the precise definition of hypersonic flow; minimum Mach numbers for hypersonic flow range from 3 to 12. Most aerodynamicists use numbers between 5 and 8.
The influence of viscosity in the flow dictates a third classification. Some problems involve only negligible viscous effects on the solution, in which case viscosity can be considered to be nonexistent. The approximations to these problems are called inviscid flows. Flows for which viscosity cannot be neglected are called viscous flows.
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Aerodynamic forces on aircraft
Aeroforces.jpg
One of the major goals of aerodynamics is to predict the aerodynamic forces on aircraft.
The four basic forces that act on a powered aircraft are lift, weight, thrust, and drag.
Weight is the force due to gravity and thrust is the force generated by the engine. Lift and drag are aerodynamic forces. Lift is defined as the aerodynamic force acting perpendicular to the relative airflow and drag is defined as the aerodynamic force acting parallel to the relative airflow. Lift is positive upwards and drag is positive rearwards.
Aerodynamics in other fields
Aerodynamics is important in a number of applications other than aerospace engineering. It is a significant factor in any type of vehicle design, including automobiles. It is important in the prediction of forces and moments in sailing. It is used in the design of small components such as hard drive heads. Civil engineers also use aerodynamics, and particularly aeroelasticity, to calculate wind loads in the design of large buildings and bridges.
Continuity assumption
Gases are composed of molecules which collide with one another and solid objects. In aerodynamics, however, gases are considered to have continuous quantities. That is, properties such as density, pressure, temperature, and velocity are taken to be welldefined at infinitely small points, and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another. The discrete, molecular nature of a gas is ignored.
The continuity assumption becomes less valid as a gas becomes more rarefied. In these cases, statistical mechanics is a more valid method of solving the problem than aerodynamics.
Conservation laws
Aerodynamic problems are solved using the conservation laws, or equations derived from the conservation laws. In aerodynamics, three conservation laws are used:
 Conservation of mass: Matter is not created or destroyed. If a certain mass of fluid enters a volume, it must either exit the volume or increase the mass inside the volume.
 Conservation of momentum: Also called Newton's second law of motion
 Conservation of energy: Although it can be converted from one form to another, the total energy in a given system remains constant.
All aerodynamic problems are therefore solved by the same set of equations. However, they differ by the assumptions made in each problem. The equations become simpler as assumptions are made.
Note that these laws are based on Newtonian Mechanics, they are not applicable in Einsteinian Mechanics (the latter taking into account Einstein's theory of relativity).
Subsonic aerodynamics
In a subsonic aerodynamic problem, all of the flow speeds are less than the speed of sound. This class of problems encompasses nearly all internal aerodynamic problems, as well as external aerodynamics for general aviation aircraft, model aircraft, and automobiles.
In solving a subsonic problem, one decision to be made by the aerodynamicist is whether or not to incorporate the effects of compressibility. Compressibility is a description of the amount of change of density in the problem. When the effects of compressibility on the solution are small, the aerodynamicist may choose to assume that density is constant. The problem is then an incompressible problem. When the density is allowed to vary, the problem is called a compressible problem. In air, compressibility effects can be ignored when the Mach number in the flow does not exceed 0.3. Above 0.3, the problem should be solved using compressible aerodynamics.
Transonic aerodynamics
Transonic aerodynamic problems are defined as problems in which both supersonic and subsonic flow exist. Normally the term is reserved for problems in which the characteristic Mach number is very close to one.
Transonic flows are characterized by shock waves and expansion waves. A shock wave or expansion wave is a region of very large changes in the flow properties. In fact, the properties change so quickly they are nearly discontinuous across the waves.
Transonic problems are arguably the most difficult to solve. Flows behave very differently at subsonic and supersonic speeds, therefore a problem involving both types is more complex than one in which the flow is either purely subsonic or purely supersonic.
Supersonic aerodynamics
Supersonic aerodynamic problems are those involving flow speeds greater than the speed of sound. Calculating the lift on the Concorde can be an example of a supersonic aerodynamic problem.
Supersonic flow behaves very differently from subsonic flow. The speed of sound can be considered the fastest speed that "information" can travel in the flow. Gas travelling at subsonic speed diverts around a body before striking it, it can be said to "know" that the body is there. Air cannot divert around a body when it is travelling at supersonic speeds. It continues to travel in a straight line until it reaches a shock wave and decelerates to subsonic speeds. Mathematically, supersonic flow is described by a hyperbolic partial differential equation while subsonic flow is described by an elliptic partial differential equation.
Another example of the difference between supersonic and subsonic flow is the behaviour in a convergent duct (known as a nozzle in subsonic flow and a diffuser in supersonic flow). Subsonic flow in a convergent duct accelerates and supersonic flow decelerates.
Hypersonic aerodynamics
Hypersonic aerodynamics are characterized by viscous interaction phenomena, that is, the viscosity of the flow significantly affects the external flow, including shock waves. The curved shock waves chemically alter the surrounding air or gas, creating a partially ionized plasma with their high temperatures (caused in part by significant aerodynamic heating of the body). "Hypersonic" is typically considered to refer to the Mach 5 and faster region of aircraft speed; however, some hypersonic phenomena can exist at speeds as low as Mach 3 (depending on the aircraft and the environment).
See also
 Aeronautics
 Fluid dynamics
 Bernoulli's equation
 NavierStokes equations
 Center of pressurecs:Aerodynamika
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