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Galba

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Head of Galba at the .
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Head of Galba at the Louvre.

Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC - January 15, AD 69) was Roman Emperor from June AD 68 until his death. He was the first emperor of the Year of the four emperors.

Contents

Origins and rise to power

He was born near Tarragona. He came of a noble family and was a man of great wealth, but unconnected either by birth or by adoption with the first six Caesars. In his early years he was regarded as a youth of remarkable abilities, and it is said that both Augustus and Tiberius prophesied his future eminence (Tacitus, Annals, vi. 20 (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Tac.+Ann.+6.20); Suetonius, Galba, 4).

Praetor in 20, and consul in 33, he acquired a well-merited reputation in the provinces of Gaul, Germania, Africa and Spain by his military capability, strictness and impartiality. On the death of Caligula, he refused the invitation of his friends to make a bid for empire, and loyally served Claudius. For the first half of Nero's reign he lived in retirement, till, in 61, the emperor bestowed on him the province of Hispania Tarraconensis.

In the spring of 68, Galba was informed of Nero's intention to put him to death, and of the insurrection of Julius Vindex in Gaul. He was at first inclined to follow the example of Vindex, but the defeat and death of the latter renewed his hesitation. The news that Nymphidius Sabinus, the praefect of the praetorians, had declared in his favour revived Galba's spirits. Hitherto, he had only dared to call himself the legate of the senate and Roman people; after the murder of Nero, he assumed the title of Caesar, and marched straight for Rome.

Following the death of Nero, Nymphidius Sabinus sought to seize power prior to the arrival of Galba, but he could not win the loyalty of the praetorian guard and was killed. Upon Galba's approach to the city in October, he was met by soldiers presenting demands; Galba replied with violence, killing many of them.

Rule and fall

The primary concern of Galba during his brief reign was in restoring state finances, and to this end he undertook a number of unpopular measures, the most dangerous of which was his refusal to pay the praetorians the reward promised in his name. Galba scorned the notion that soldiers should be bribed for their loyalty. He further disgusted the mob by his meanness and dislike of pomp and display. His advanced age had destroyed his energy, and he was entirely in the hands of favourites. All this made the new emperor gravely unpopular.

On January 1, 69, two legions in Germania Superior refused to swear loyalty to Galba and toppled his statues, demanding that a new emperor be chosen; on the next day, the soldiers of Germania Inferior also rebelled and took the decision of who should be the next emperor into their own hands, proclaiming the governor of the province, Vitellius, as emperor. This outbreak of revolt made Galba aware of his own unpopularity and of the general discontent. In order to check the rising storm, he adopted as his coadjutor and successor L. Calpurnius Piso. The populace regarded the choice of successor as a sign of fear, and the praetorians were indignant, because the usual donative was not forthcoming.

M. Salvius Otho, formerly governor of Lusitania, and one of Galba's earliest supporters, disappointed at not being chosen instead of Piso, entered into communication with the discontented praetorians, and was adopted by them as their emperor. Galba, who at once set out to meet the rebels — he was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter — was met by a troop of cavalry and butchered near the Lacus Curtius.

During the later period of his provincial administration he was indolent and apathetic, but this was due either to a desire not to attract the notice of Nero or to the growing infirmities of age. Tacitus rightly says that all would have pronounced him worthy of empire if he had never been emperor ("omnium consensu capax imperii nisi imperasset").


External Links

Template:Wikiquote

Primary Sources

  • Life of Galba (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Galba*.html) (Suetonius; English translation and Latin original)
  • Life of Galba (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Galba*.html) (Plutarch; English translation)
  • Cassius Dio, Book 63 (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/63*.html)

Secondary Material



Preceded by:
Nero
Roman Emperor
68–69
Succeeded by:
Otho

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