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Ellipsis

From Academic Kids

This article is not about the ellipse, the flattened circle shape.
Punctuation marks

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brackets ( ( ) ) ( [ ] ) ( { } ) ( Template:Unicode )
colon ( : )
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dashes ( Template:Unicode ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ellipsis ( ) ( ... )
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hyphen ( - ) ( Template:Unicode )
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space (   ) and interpunct ( )

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Ellipsis Έλλειψις (plural: ellipses ελλείψεις, Greek for omission) in linguistics refers to any omitted part of speech that is understood, i.e. the omission is intentional. Analogously, in printing and writing, the term refers to the row of three dots (…) or asterisks (* * *) indicating an such an intentional omission. This punctuation mark is also called a suspension point or simply dot-dot-dot.

An example is, “She went to … school.” In this sentence, “…” might represent the word “elementary,” or the word “no.” The use of ellipses can either mislead or clarify, and the reader must rely on the good intentions of the writer who uses it. Omission without indication by an ellipsis is always considered misleading.

An ellipsis can also be used to indicate a pause in speech, or be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a trailing off into silence.

Contents

Typographical rules

There are differences in typographical rules and conventions of using ellipses between languages.

Ellipsis in English

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests the use of an ellipsis for any omitted word, phrase, line or paragraph from within a quoted passage. There are two commonly used methods of using ellipses: one uses three dots for any omission, the second makes a distinction between omissions within a sentence (using three dots: …) and omissions between sentences (using a period and a space followed by three nonbreaking-spaced dots: . . .).

Although some write ellipses without spaces, some institutions, such as the Oxford University Press, place spaces before the ellipsis. Thus: “I have seen something …” (instead of “I have seen something…”) The exception here is when a word has been cut off in the middle; that is, when the ellipsis stands for a part of one word: “‘He said he realized he was wro…’ I stopped mid-word, awestruck.” (In English this is often written as “‘He said he realized he was wro—’ I stopped mid-word, awestruck.”)

There is no such thing as a "four-dot ellipsis." A period followed by an ellipsis may look like four dots, but they are two separate entities.

At least one style manual—the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers—recommends that the writer enclose an ellipsis in brackets ([ ]) when omitting part of an original quotation. The purpose of this is to prevent readers from confusing ellipses indicating omissions with ellipses included in the original text. However, most other style guides, including the Chicago Manual of Style, recommend the use of bare ellipses to indicate omissions.

Ellipsis in Polish

In Polish language ellipsis (called wielokropek which means multidot) is always composed of three dots without any spaces between. There is also no space between the ellipsis and the preceding word, but there is always a space after ellipsis, unless the next character is a closing bracket or quote mark, in which case the space is used after that character.

When the ellipsis is used while omitting a fragment of quotation, it is always surrounded with either square brackets or (more commonly) parentheses with no space inside:

„Słowem (...) chcemy stworzyć po raz wtry człowieka, na obraz i podobieństwo manekinu.” (Bruno Schulz, Traktat o manekinach)

Those rules are standardized by PN-83/P-55366 standard from 1983, Setting rules from composing of Polish texts (Zasady składania tekstw w języku polskim).

Ellipsis without parentheses usually means a pause in speech:

Jest słoń z trąbami dwiema
I tylko... wysp tych nie ma.
(Jan Brzechwa, Na wyspach Bergamutach...)

It can also mean a word said partially and interrupted and in that case can be directly followed by another punctuation mark without space:

Szef policji pierś wysadza
I spod marsa sypiąc skry,
Prężnym krokiem się przechadza...
Co za gracja! Co za władza!
Co za pompa! Jezu Chry...!
(Julian Tuwim, Bal w Operze)

Ellipsis can be used at the end of a sentence, but it is always composed of three dots, never four, and the only difference is the capitalisation of the next word:

Ktoś dziś mnie opuścił w ten chmurny dzień słotny...
Kto? Nie wiem... Ktoś odszedł i jestem samotny...
Ktoś umarł... Kto? Prżno w pamięci swej grzebię...
Ktoś drogi... wszak byłem na jakimś pogrzebie...
(Leopold Staff, Deszcz jesienny)

Ellipsis in Japanese

In Japanese manga, the ellipsis by itself represents speechlessness, usually as an admission of guilt or a response to being dumbfounded as a result of something that another person has just said or done. The dots may be vertical or horizontal in stacking, and there may be more than one row/column. The growing popularity of manga worldwide has extended this convention beyond the borders of Japan.

Ellipsis in Chinese

In Chinese, the ellipsis is six dots (in two groups of three dots), twice as long as the English ellipsis.

Ellipsis in mathematics

The ellipsis is also often used in mathematics to mean “and so forth,” e.g.,

<math>1+2+3+\cdots+100<math>

means the sum of all natural numbers from 1 to 100. However, it is not a formally defined mathematical symbol.

Ellipsis in programming

In some programming languages (Perl, Ada etc), a shortened 2-character ellipsis is used to represent a range of numbers. For example:

foreach (1..100)

The above command in Perl would iterate through the list of integer numbers from 1 to 100.

Ellipsis in computing

In computing, the ellipsis character in the Unicode encoding is encoded as hexadecimal 0x2026, which is displayed as “…”. The HTML character entity for it is &hellip; (for ‘horizontal ellipsis’). The character appears in some proprietary 8-bit encodings, but not in the commonly-used ISO-8859-1 encoding, though some misguided software may attempt to insert the character in a nonstandard way by using a code position from a vendor-specific character encoding as if it were an ISO-8859-1 or Unicode code position.

In a user interface, ... after a command means that the user needs to enter extra information before the command can execute.

Types of ellipsis in typography

In typography there are various types of ellipsis, which are displayed below using TeX; the diagonal and vertical forms are particularly useful for showing missing terms in matrices:

  • a lower ellipsis <math>\ldots<math> \ldots
  • a centred ellipsis <math>\cdots<math> \cdots
  • a diagonal ellipsis <math>\ddots<math> \ddots
  • a vertical ellipsis <math>\vdots<math> \vdots

Rhetorics

An ellipsis is also a rhetorical figure of speech, the omission of a word or words required by strict grammatical rules but not by sense. The missing words are implied by the context. The aposiopesis is special form of rhetorical ellipsis.

Typical examples of this are:

Pat embraces Meredith, and Meredith, Pat,
in which the second instance of the word embraces is implied rather than explicit.
And so to bed,
which appears on several occasions in the diary of Samuel Pepys, meaning and so I went to bed.
Is there for honest Poverty
That hings his head, an' a' that;
from the opening of a poem by Robert Burns. Burns is asking:
Is there an honest man among us who hangs his head, and otherwise cringes, because of his Poverty?de:Ellipse (Satzzeichen)

fr:Points de suspention it:Ellissi nl:Ellips (stijlfiguur) pl:Elipsa (teoria literatury) pt:Reticncias ru:Многоточие fi:Kolme pistett

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